Presentation on theme: "Individual Psychology Alfred Adler"— Presentation transcript:
1Individual Psychology Alfred Adler Chapter 3Adler could be considered developmental theorist:optimistic view of human natureDescribed as a “soft determinist”: humans can be understood given general principles and laws – but these are only probabilities of what might happen.Social Constructivist: The way that people perceive the world determines their views of reality – there is no SET reality that everyone adheres to.Social Activist: Social change is needed to improve the wellness of people.
2The Case of James 16-year-old single African American male Behavior problems that might interfere with adjustment to new foster homeLittle insight into current problemsAdmits desire to work on temper and get along better with othersRelevant History: Placed in foster care at age 8 due to severe neglect and physical abuse by step fatherMultiple foster care placements with interim time spent in residential care.Parental rights have been terminatedDifficulty at schoolFired from job for getting drunkMother: hx of alcohol abuseFather: deceasedCurrent foster parents getting divorcedInterpersonal:Many friendsPopular with girls
3Basic Philosophy Optimistic view of humans Soft-determinism Social constructivismSandy’s approach to James:Reflects on the positive nature of humansJames appears troubled but likely has the strength and determination to work toward a more positive lifestyleJames has created his own view of the worldSandy will work with James to help him change the view of the world that he has created
4Human Motivation Humans: Innately strive for perfection Need the support of othersCreate their own life pathAre able to change their life path & goalsJames probably has strong feelings of inferiority that he works VERY hard to hidePeople must have a plan to find significance for themselves and feelings for othersStriving for PerfectionNeed to belongCore Motivation:People are pulled by their goals and NOT driven by their instincts.Humans are born feeling inferior – small and weakA psychologist can only know the person through their personal plan to achieve superiority that involves a plan to deal with feelings of inferiority and obtain a certain level of belongingness.Thinking, feeling, behaving, and physiological functioning are integrated
5Central Constructs Life Style Inferiority Feelings Social interest GoalsInfluence of parents/familySocial interestPhysical problemsDiscrimination based on sex, race, or classInferiority FeelingsSuperiority complexLife Style: A plan that a person develops by the age of 5 or 6 and uses it to guide them through life.Includes their perceptions of the world and their actions in the world.All behavior is purposeful and oriented towards achieving the lifestyle goal.Qualities of the Goals of Lifestyle: the person is not aware of the goal; the goal is not based in external reality but is constructed by the person.Goals develop from the interaction between the need for significance and social interest.Influence of parents/family:Parents/family – models for beliefs, values and interpersonal relationshipsBirth Order: The position of the child in the family can have a marked impact on developmentOrdinal position: first, second, third etc.Birth Order: first, middle, last, or only – relates to the psychological position of the child in the familyFirst: Tendency to seek positions of authority, likes rules, and may be conservative; also may have tendency to revolt if he has difficulty accepting the change when subsequent siblings arriveMiddle: feel squeezed between older and younger siblings – may feel especially disadvantagedYoungest: the smallest child – may result in the desire to be the best or may become cowardly and hopeless regarding success.Only: like being the center of attention; interact well with adults but not necessarily peers; may have difficulty being independent and may be self-centered – socially useless.Basic Mistakes:Distorted attitudes about self (I am worthless)Distorted attitudes about the world and people (the world is hostile)Distorted goals (perfectionism)Distorted methods of operation (overdoing)Distorted Ideals (the “real man”)Distorted Conclusion: pessimism, ____conquers all, can’t trust people, being a fanaticSocial InterestHow much does the person care about his social surrounding/society?Observed in what the person contributes to his communityThe POTENTIAL for social interest is innate – but the potential MUST be nurturedPROBLEMS:Physical problems: society does not typically react to people with physical problems in nurturing waysDiscrimination: kids who are discriminated against may learn that the only way to survive is to look out for number one – focus on self instead of society.Inferiority Feelings:Begin when the child is very youngInfluenced by how the child is treated by others and how he perceives and reacts to the situationSuperiority Complex: The person builds a façade of significance that does not include social interest – these folks are screaming out that they feel inferior and are using the air of superiority to escape their problems.
6Central Constructs Basic Life Tasks Solving the problem of Communal LifeOccupational tasksLoveCoping with the selfExistentialBasic MistakesBasic Life Tasks:Communal Life: cooperation with other people in societyOccupational Tasks: Society needs members to divide up various labor tasks & most people find some type of work, varying in degree that it benefits society.Love: the most intimate devotion toward a partner of the OTHER sexCoping with the self: STOP the warring between perceived good and evil parts of self – we need to find ourselves basically good although we have some expected imperfections.Existential: developing a philosophy of human nature, determining the existence of an after life, and considering the meaning of life.
7Theory of the Person Healthy Personality Well-developed social interestsContributes to societySucceeds at the tasks of lifeContributes to the communityFinds a partner of the other sexFinds useful workThe courage to be imperfect
8Theory of the Person Unhealthy Personality SafeguardingThe individual has the goal of personal superiority & the life style is aimed at protecting self-esteemDiscouragementDue to mistaken life styles that are selfish rather than socially orientedDiscouragement: lost the courage to proceed on the useful side of life.
9Types of Psychological Dysfunction NeurosisRooted in childhoodOrgan inferiorityPampered childNeglected childTendency to evade life tasksStrive for personal superiorityThe “yes, but” personalityPsychosisThe goal to be godlike in order to fend off very deep feelings of inferiorityWithdraws from others because he does not have the interpersonal skills, occupational interests, and/or confidence to deal with lifeOrgan inferiority: kids become focused on their bodies and can’t see that life meaning is achieved by contributing to othersPampered child: achieves superiority by having others do everything for himNeglected child: didn’t have models of love and cooperation so he never learned these tasks.
10Nature of Therapy Therapeutic Atmosphere FaithClient must have faith in the counselorHopeCounselor should encourage the client to accept the challenges of life and therapyDevelops in the client as a result of feeling understoodLoveClient MUST feel that the counselor cares about himGoal of therapist is to understand the client through understanding his lifestyle.Use active listening, empathy, and observation to build a picture of the client’s ways of operating in the world.
11Nature of Therapy Assessment Formal Adler’s Structured Interview The QuestionDreiker’s Family Constellation InterviewEarly RecollectionsDreamsInformalFormal Assessment: obtaining information to understand the lifestyleAdler’s structured interview to assess positive assets, social relationships, interests, and discouraged behaviors.Question: Ask client “What would be different in your life if (the symptom disappeared)Dreikers Family Constellation interview: client describes self, siblings, parents and relationships among family members.Early Recollections: memories of early childhood are considered reflective of current views on life or the lifestyle.Dreams: thought to represent some problem currently confronting the person.Informal Assessment: Every action of the client provides information about the client.Sandy uses an informal assessment to gather information about James that includes his presentation to her; how she experiences him; family life with his biological and foster families; clues for how James strives for superiority; lifestyle goals
12Nature of Therapy Role of the counselor Role of the client An educator An encouragerAdmits own fallibilityModels a courageous approach to lifeRole of the clientLearn about faulty lifestyleGoal: Help the client understand and change faulty life style and selfish goals to achieve success in the tasks of life.
13Nature of Therapy Goals of Therapy Psychoanalytic Constructs Help client uncover and resolve unconscious conflictsPsychoanalytic ConstructsInsightResistanceTransferenceCountertransferenceInsight: Gain understanding of the sources of behavior and symptoms as stemming from unresolved unconscious conflicts.Resistance: Actions of the Ego and Superego to keep unconscious material from surfacingTransference: The re creation of a pivotal former relationship with the analystCountertransference: Conflicts from the counselor’s past are projected into the analytic situation and the therapist loses objectivity.James’ goals for treatment are to:Modify his faulty life style and selfish goals to increase levels of success in the basic life tasks
14Process of Therapy Establishing the relationship Analysis and assessmentDevelopment of insightReorientationEstablishing the relationshipCounselor conveys the certainty that client has power to changeCounselor and client establish goals for therapyAnalysis and AssessmentCounselor begins to understand client’s lifestyle and goalsCounselor watches for client’s efforts to achieve goalsDevelopment of InsightClient begins to understand lifestyleClient becomes aware of how he chooses to function and whyReorientationClient works with counselor to find ways to behave differently
15Therapeutic Techniques InterpretationCounselor uses information to form hypotheses about the client’s lifestyleEncouragementHelps client find his own strengths and recognize his power to affect the world through choicesConsequencesNaturalLogicalActing As IfPushing the ButtonCatching OneselfCreating ImagesPleasing SomeoneParadoxical IntentionInterpretationCounselor uses information to form hypotheses about the client’s lifestyleEncouragementHelps client find his own strengths and recognize his power to effect the world through choicesNatural Consequences: letting events take their course – dirty laundry on the floor exampleLogical Consequences: result from another person intervening and are based on social rules that are logically related to the undesirable behavior.Acting As If: Whatever the if only is – counselor instructs client to act as if it was truePushing the Button: Client visualizes pleasant scene and focuses on feeling, then visualizes unpleasant scene and focuses on feeling, then focuses on original pleasant scene and focuses on feeling – teaches client that he can create emotions by choosing what to focus on.Creating Images: client creates images of faulty goalsPleasing someone: confront the client’s faulty life style by advising them to think daily about how to please someone.Paradoxical Intention: clients are encouraged to intensify their symptom in order to increase their awareness of the symptom and its consequences. The client may realize that the symptom is absurd and choose to abandon it.
16Evaluation Qualities Precise/Testable Empirically valid Stimulating Research SupportOutcome researchTheory-testing researchTestable: same difficulties as PsychoanalyticConstructs are difficult to operationalize and measureVery difficult to disconfirm constructs – IP can explain almost any pattern of behavior.Empirically valid – some research to support the major constructs and predictions of the theory but little outcome research has been done.
17Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity ProsRecognized effects of class differencesAdvocated for equality between the sexesFocused on social involvementConsStereotypic views of women’s rolesEmphasizes individual choice and controlView of homosexuality as a “perversion”