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Individual Psychology Alfred Adler Chapter 3. The Case of James 16-year-old single African American male Behavior problems that might interfere with adjustment.

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Presentation on theme: "Individual Psychology Alfred Adler Chapter 3. The Case of James 16-year-old single African American male Behavior problems that might interfere with adjustment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Individual Psychology Alfred Adler Chapter 3

2 The Case of James 16-year-old single African American male Behavior problems that might interfere with adjustment to new foster home Little insight into current problems Admits desire to work on temper and get along better with others

3 Basic Philosophy Optimistic view of humans Soft-determinism Social constructivism

4 Human Motivation Humans: Innately strive for perfection Need the support of others Create their own life path Are able to change their life path & goals

5 Central Constructs Life Style Goals Influence of parents/family Social interest Physical problems Discrimination based on sex, race, or class Inferiority Feelings Superiority complex

6 Central Constructs Basic Life Tasks Solving the problem of Communal Life Occupational tasks Love Coping with the self Existential Basic Mistakes

7 Theory of the Person Healthy Personality Well-developed social interests Contributes to society Succeeds at the tasks of life Contributes to the community Finds a partner of the other sex Finds useful work The courage to be imperfect

8 Theory of the Person Unhealthy Personality Safeguarding The individual has the goal of personal superiority & the life style is aimed at protecting self-esteem Discouragement Due to mistaken life styles that are selfish rather than socially oriented

9 Types of Psychological Dysfunction Neurosis Rooted in childhood Organ inferiority Pampered child Neglected child Tendency to evade life tasks Strive for personal superiority The “yes, but” personality Psychosis The goal to be godlike in order to fend off very deep feelings of inferiority Withdraws from others because he does not have the interpersonal skills, occupational interests, and/or confidence to deal with life

10 Nature of Therapy Therapeutic Atmosphere Faith Client must have faith in the counselor Hope Counselor should encourage the client to accept the challenges of life and therapy Develops in the client as a result of feeling understood Love Client MUST feel that the counselor cares about him

11 Nature of Therapy Assessment Formal Adler’s Structured Interview The Question Dreiker’s Family Constellation Interview Early Recollections Dreams Informal

12 Nature of Therapy Role of the counselor An educator An encourager Admits own fallibility Models a courageous approach to life Role of the client Learn about faulty lifestyle

13 Nature of Therapy Goals of Therapy Help client uncover and resolve unconscious conflicts Psychoanalytic Constructs Insight Resistance Transference Countertransference

14 Process of Therapy Establishing the relationship Analysis and assessment Development of insight Reorientation

15 Therapeutic Techniques Interpretation Counselor uses information to form hypotheses about the client’s lifestyle Encouragement Helps client find his own strengths and recognize his power to affect the world through choices Consequences Natural Logical Acting As If Pushing the Button Catching Oneself Creating Images Pleasing Someone Paradoxical Intention

16 Evaluation Qualities Precise/Testable Empirically valid Stimulating Research Support Outcome research Theory-testing research

17 Issues of Individual and Cultural Diversity Pros Recognized effects of class differences Advocated for equality between the sexes Focused on social involvement Cons Stereotypic views of women’s roles Emphasizes individual choice and control View of homosexuality as a “perversion”


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