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ROCKS AND MINERALS Chapters 2 & 3 Test 2 material Begin.

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Presentation on theme: "ROCKS AND MINERALS Chapters 2 & 3 Test 2 material Begin."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROCKS AND MINERALS Chapters 2 & 3 Test 2 material Begin

2 Grand Canyon

3 RELATIVE TIME TIME IN RELATIONSHIP WHILE COMPARING ONE ROCK LAYER WITH ANOTHER

4 GEOLOGIC LAWS - SUPERPOSITION EACH LAYER OF ROCK IS OLDER THAN THE LAYER ABOVE IT AND YOUNGER THAN THE LAYER BELOW IT

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6 GEOLOGIC LAWS - CROSS CUTTING WHEN ROCKS CUT THROUGH OTHER ROCKS, THEY ARE ASSUMED TO BE YOUNGER THAN THE ROCKS THEY CUT THROUGH

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8 GEOLOGIC LAW - INCLUSIONS PIECES OF OLDER ROCK CONTAINED WITHIN A YOUNGER ROCK

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10 TYPES OF FOSSILS PETRIFICATION - TURNED TO STONE INDIRECT EVIDENCE - TRACE OF ITS EXISTENCE (COPROLITE) ACTUAL REMAINS - SHELL IMPRINT - BIRD TRACKS OR WORM BURROWS ONLY FOUND IN SEDIMENTARY ROCK

11 PETRIFICATION

12 COPROLITE - INDIRECT

13 SHARK TOOTH – ACTUAL

14 IMPRINT

15 OPPOSING THOUGHT - UNIFORMITARIANISM SAME PHYSICAL PROCESSES ACTIVE TODAY HAVE BEEN OPERATING THROUGHOUT GEOLOGIC TIME PRESENT HOLDS KEY TO PAST JAMES HUTTON - FATHER OF MODERN GEOLOGY

16 OPPOSING THOUGHT - CATASTROPHISM CATASTROPHIC OR CATACLYSMIC EVENTS HAVE ALTERED DEPOSITION AND EROSION THROUGHOUT TIME SCABLANDS OF IDAHO - 100,000 YEARS OF EROSION TOOK PLACE IN A 30 DAY PERIOD

17 HOW ROCK DIFFERS ACROSS THE EARTH’S CRUST CONTINENTAL ROCK - GRANITE - SIAL WHICH IS COMPOSED OF SILICA AND ALUMINUM AND LIGHTER THAN OCEAN ROCK OCEAN ROCK - BASALT - SIMA WHICH IS HEAVIER AND COMPOSED OF SILICA AND MAGNESIUM

18 GEOLOGIC CONCEPT - ISOSTACY EQUILIBRIUM STATE IN EARTH’S CRUST FORMED BY THE RELATIONSHIP OF PORTIONS OF THE LITHOSPHERE & ASTHENOSPHERE LOG FLOATING IN RIVER

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20 GEOLOGIC CYCLES HYDROLOGIC CYCLE ROCK CYCLE TECTONIC CYCLE

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22 MINERAL INORGANIC SOLID NATURAL COMPOUND HAVING A SPECIFIC CHEMICAL FORMULA AND POSSESSING A CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE THAT IS FIXED OR VARIES WITHIN A DEFINITE RANGE

23 EXAMPLES OF MINERALS TALC GYPSUM CALCITE QUARTZ SULFUR HALITE GRAPHITE

24 GALENA FLUORITE APATITE MAGNETITE DIAMOND

25 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES LUSTER - APPEARANCE OF LIGHT REFLECTED FROM A MINERAL - METALLIC OR NONMETALLIC COLOR - INHERENT OR EXOTIC STREAK - AFTER RUBBING MINERAL ACROSS A PORCELAIN PLATE THE LEFTOVER POWDER RESIDUE

26 STREAK PLATE

27 SPECIFIC GRAVITY - WEIGHT OF MINERAL TO EQUAL VOLUME OF WATER CLEAVAGE - ABILITY TO BREAK OR CLEAVE IN CERTAIN DIRECTIONS MORE READILY THAN OTHERS FRACTURE - DOES NOT BREAK IN CERTAIN DIRECTIONS

28 CLEAVAGE

29 FRACTURE

30 MAGNETISM - CAN PICK UP WITH MAGNET TASTE - HALITE FEEL - TALC (SOAPY) GRAPHITE (OILY OR GREASY) ACID TEST - WILL FIZZ OR BUBBLE HARDNESS - SCRATCHING RESISTANT

31 MOH’S SCALE OF HARDNESS 1 = TALC 2 = GYPSUM 2.5 = HUMAN FINGERNAIL 3 = CALCITE 4 = FLUORITE 5 = APATITE 5.5 = GLASS

32 7 = QUARTZ 10 = DIAMOND IF YOU SCRATCH IT WITH YOUR FINGER NAIL = LESS THAN 2.5 CAN’T SCRATCH IT AND IT WON’T SCRATCH GLASS = SCRATCHES GLASS = GREATER 5.5

33 MINERAL GROUPS SILICATES OXYGEN & SILICON ATOMS SILICON-OXYGEN TETRAHEDRON [4 OXYGEN ATOMS SURROUNDING A MUCH SMALLER SILICON ATOM] FELDSPARS, QUARTZ, MICAS, HORNBLENDE, OLIVINE, AUGITE

34 SILICON-OXYGEN TETRAHEDRON

35 NON-SILICATE MINERALS CARBONATES - CALCITE & DOLOMITE HALIDES - HALITE & FLUORITE NATIVE ELEMENTS - GOLD, COPPER, DIAMOND, GRAPHITE, SILVER SULFATES - GYPSUM SULFIDES - GALENA & PYRITE OXIDES - MAGNETITE & HEMATITE

36 USES OF NON-METALLIC MINERALS APATITE - FERTILIZERS ASBESTOS - FIBERS CALCITE - CHEMICALS, CEMENT CLAY [KAOLINITE] CHINA, KAOPECTATE FLUORITE - GLASS, CHEMICALS GRAPHITE - PENCIL LEAD

37 GYPSUM - PLASTER OF PARIS HALITE - TABLE SALT MUSCOVITE - ELECTRICAL INSULATOR SULFUR - CHEMICALS TALC - BABY POWDER, PAINTS

38 GEMSTONES PRECIOUS DIAMOND EMERALD [BERYL] OPAL RUBY [CORUNDUM] SAPPHIRE [CORUNDUM]

39 DIAMONDS

40 EMERALDS

41 GEMSTONES SEMIPRECIOUS AMETHYST - QUARTZ CAT’S EYE - QUARTZ GARNET JADE - JADEITE MOONSTONE - FELDSPAR TOPAZ TURQUOISE ZIRCON

42 AMETHYST

43 METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCES ALUMINUM, CHROMIUM, COPPER, GOLD, IRON, LEAD, MAGNESIUM, MERCURY, NICKEL, PLATINUM, SILVER, TIN, TITANIUM, TUNGSTEN, URANIUM, ZINC

44 ROCK TYPES IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC ROCK CYCLE

45 IGNEOUS ROCKS FORM WHEN MAGMA OR LAVA COOLS AND CRYSTALLIZES COOLS RAPIDLY HAVE SMALL CRYSTALS - EXTRUSIVE COOLS SLOWLY HAVE LARGE CRYSTALS - INTRUSIVE

46 INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS COOL SLOWLY IN THE CRUST (MAGMA) EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS ROCKS COOL RAPIDLY AT THE SURFACE (LAVA) WHICH WILL HAVE THE LARGE CRYSTAL SIZE?

47 CLASSIFYING IGNEOUS ROCKS MINERAL COMPOSITION TEXTURE - OVERALL APPEARANCE OF ROCK BASED ON SIZE & ARRANGEMENT OF CRYSTALS FINE-GRAINED COARSE-GRAINED PORPHYRITIC GLASSY

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49 FINE-GRAINED

50 COARSE-GRAINED

51 PORPHYRITIC

52 IGNEOUS ROCKS GRANITE BASALT PUMICE OBSIDIAN RHYOLITE

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54 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS BITS AND PIECES OF EXISTING ROCK ARE TRANSPORTED THEN LITHIFIED BY COMPRESSION, COMPACTION, AND CEMENTATION LAID DOWN IN HORIZONTALLY LAYERED BEDS ONLY ROCK TYPE TO CONTAIN FOSSILS

55 CLASSIFYING SEDIMENTARY ROCKS DETRITAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS - ORIGINATE AS SOLID PARTICLES FROM WEATHERED ROCKS CHEMICAL SEDIMENTARY ROCKS - SOLUBLE MATERIAL PRODUCED BY CHEMICAL WEATHERING

56 CLASSIFICATION BY PARTICLE SIZE - DETRITAL BOULDER, COBBLE, PEBBLE = GRAVEL = CONGLOMERATE OR BRECCIA SAND = SAND = SANDSTONE SILT = MUD = SILTSTONE CLAY = MUD = SHALE

57 GRAVEL-SIZED

58 SAND-SIZED

59 SILT-SIZED

60 CLAY-SIZED

61 SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CONGLOMERATE SANDSTONE SILTSTONE SHALE LIMESTONE PEAT MOSS & LIGNITE COAL BITUMINOUS COAL

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64 METAMORPHIC ROCKS TRANSFORMED FROM PRE-EXISTING ROCKS BY EITHER HEAT, PRESSURE, OR CHEMICAL ACTION FOLIATED (BANDS OR LAYERS) AND NON-FOLIATED

65 FOLIATED METAMORPHIC ROCKS SLATE SCHISTS GNEISS

66 FOLIATED ROCK

67 NON-FOLIATED METAMORPHIC ROCKS MARBLE QUARTZITE

68 NON-FOLIATED ROCK

69 OLD ROCK TO METAMORPHIC EQUIVALENT GRANITE BECOMES GNEISS MICA BECOMES SCHIST SHALE BECOMES SLATE LIMESTONE BECOMES MARBLE SANDSTONE BECOMES QUARTZITE BITUMINOUS COAL BECOMES ANTHRACITE COAL

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71 Yosemite Valley


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