Presentation on theme: "What is a mineral? Mineral- a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition. Naturally occurring-"— Presentation transcript:
2What is a mineral?Mineral- a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition.Naturally occurring- made by the earthMineral- quartz, sulfur, diamond, gold, silverNot a mineral- brick, glass, steel (man-made)Inorganic- made of nonliving materialSolid- Molecules are tightly packed into a rigid structure.Crystal Structure- the repeating pattern that the particles within a mineral form.Specific Chemical Composition- the elements that make the minerals have a definite chemical formula.
3Characteristics to classify minerals: 1.Color2.Streak- the powder of the minerals3.Luster- the way a mineral shines4.Density-heaviness5.Hardness- scratch glass, scratch steel, can scrape with fingernails...6.Breaks-Cleavage/fracture
5Streak- the powder of the minerals. Streak is determined by scraping the mineral on a streak plate and observing the color left on the plate.
6Luster- the way a mineral shines or reflects light. Types of lusters to select from:Metallitic luster-(graphite)Glassy luster-(quartz)Waxy, pearly, greasy(talc)Dull luster (kaoloinite)
7Density- how heavy the mineral is Galena- extremely heavy mineralAlso used as the rare mineral “unobtainium” in the move Avatar.
8Hardness- if the mineral can scratch things or be scratched. Test using Mohs Hardness ScaleEnd HereStart Here
9How the mineral Breaks- a mineral breaks in one of two ways: 1. Fracture- the minerals breaks in no specific or irregular way.Rose quartzHematiteOlivine2. Cleavage- when a mineral splits into a pattern because of the arrangement of the atoms.Mica- breaks in thin sheetsCalcite-squared edgesHalite is cubic
10Other PropertiesSome minerals have other unique characteristics that determine the name.Smell - Sulfur smells like rotten eggsMagnetism - Magnetite is magneticTaste - Halite tastes saltyFluorescence- glows under UV lightsFranklin County, NJ has the most Florescent mineral mined collection in the world!!!!
11Ways We Use MineralsOver 40 minerals go into making electrical appliances like these...TalcGold, silver, diamonds,rubies, emeralds, etc.KaoliniteFluorite
12The Economy of Minerals Ore – A rock or mineral that contains a valuable substance which can be mined for profit.Gem – Valuable minerals that are prized for their rarity and beauty.IronOreDiamondSilverTopazGoldOreSapphire
16Two Types of Igneous Rock Igneous RocksRocks that are formed from magma (melted rock under the earth’s surface) or lava (melted rock on the earth’s surface).Two Types of Igneous RockIntrusiveformed inside the earth(magma)Extrusiveformed on the earth (lava)GraniteObsidianPumiceGabbroScoria
17Texture and Crystals of rocks of Igneous Rocks A. Texture- the size of the grains that make up the rockCoarse Grain(large grains)Fine Grain(small grains, like sand)GraniteBasaltB. Crystals- depends on how fast the rocks cooledObsidianNo Crystals- cooled too quickly for crystals to formorSmall Crystals- cooled too quickly to form large crystalsLarge Crystals- cooled slowly underground
18Rocks that change under the Earth’s surface from heat and pressure. Metamorphic RocksRocks that change under the Earth’s surface from heat and pressure.Characteristics of metamorphic rocks:Foliated-layersNonfoliated- no layersMarbleGneiss
19Sedimentary RocksRocks that are formed through a series of processes: erosion, deposition, compaction and cementation.Erosion- particles carried away by wind or water.Deposition- particles placed in an area.Compaction- particles squeezed under pressure.Cementation- particles are glued together
20Three Types of Sedimentary Rocks: A. Clastic- formed from pieces/fragments of rocks being squeezed together.Examples:SandstoneConglomerateB. Organic- made from remains of plants and/or animals.ShaleLimestoneC. Chemical- formed from minerals dissolving in water and then forms into crystals.Geodes
21Rock Cycle-a series of processes on the earth’s surface and under the surface that slowly change rocks from one type to another.