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What is a mineral? 1)Naturally occurring- made by the earth 1)Mineral- quartz, sulfur, diamond, gold, silver 2)Not a mineral- brick, glass, steel (man-made)

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Presentation on theme: "What is a mineral? 1)Naturally occurring- made by the earth 1)Mineral- quartz, sulfur, diamond, gold, silver 2)Not a mineral- brick, glass, steel (man-made)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is a mineral? 1)Naturally occurring- made by the earth 1)Mineral- quartz, sulfur, diamond, gold, silver 2)Not a mineral- brick, glass, steel (man-made) 2)Inorganic- made of nonliving material 3)Solid- Molecules are tightly packed into a rigid structure. 4)Crystal Structure- the repeating pattern that the particles within a mineral form. 5)Specific Chemical Composition- the elements that make the minerals have a definite chemical formula. Mineral- a naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a specific crystal structure and chemical composition.

3 Characteristics to classify minerals: 1.Color 2.Streak- the powder of the minerals 3.Luster- the way a mineral shines 4.Density-heaviness 5.Hardness- scratch glass, scratch steel, can scrape with fingernails... 6.Breaks- Cleavage/fracture

4 Color Sulfur Fluorite Orthoclase Feldspar Rose Quartz

5 Streak- the powder of the minerals. Streak is determined by scraping the mineral on a streak plate and observing the color left on the plate.

6 Luster- the way a mineral shines or reflects light. Types of lusters to select from: Metallitic luster-(graphite) Glassy luster-(quartz) Waxy, pearly, greasy(talc) Dull luster (kaoloinite)

7 Density- how heavy the mineral is Galena- extremely heavy mineral Also used as the rare mineral “unobtainium” in the move Avatar.

8 Hardness- if the mineral can scratch things or be scratched. Test using Mohs Hardness Scale Start Here End Here

9 How the mineral Breaks- a mineral breaks in one of two ways: 2. Cleavage- when a mineral splits into a pattern because of the arrangement of the atoms. 1. Fracture- the minerals breaks in no specific or irregular way. Mica- breaks in thin sheetsCalcite-squared edgesHalite is cubic Rose quartzHematiteOlivine

10 Other Properties Some minerals have other unique characteristics that determine the name. Smell - Sulfur smells like rotten eggs Magnetism - Magnetite is magnetic Taste - Halite tastes salty Fluorescence- glows under UV lights Franklin County, NJ has the most Florescent mineral mined collection in the world!!!!

11 Ways We Use Minerals Over 40 minerals go into making electrical appliances like these... Talc Fluorite Gold, silver, diamonds, rubies, emeralds, etc. Kaolinite

12 The Economy of Minerals Ore – A rock or mineral that contains a valuable substance which can be mined for profit. Gem – Valuable minerals that are prized for their rarity and beauty. Iron Ore Gold Ore Diamond Silver Topaz Sapphire

13 Rocks

14 What is the difference between rocks and minerals? Rocks are made up of mixtures of minerals and other materials. - Example: Granite is made up of... Quartz Hornblend Orthoclase Feldspar

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16 Igneous Rocks Rocks that are formed from magma (melted rock under the earth’s surface) or lava (melted rock on the earth’s surface). Two Types of Igneous Rock Intrusive formed inside the earth(magma) Extrusive formed on the earth (lava) Granite Gabbro Obsidian Scoria Pumice

17 Texture and Crystals of rocks of Igneous Rocks A. Texture- the size of the grains that make up the rock B. Crystals- depends on how fast the rocks cooled Coarse Grain (large grains) Fine Grain (small grains, like sand) Granite Basalt Large Crystals- cooled slowly underground No Crystals - cooled too quickly for crystals to form or Small Crystals - cooled too quickly to form large crystals Obsidian

18 Metamorphic Rocks Rocks that change under the Earth’s surface from heat and pressure. Characteristics of metamorphic rocks: Foliated-layersNonfoliated- no layers Gneiss Marble

19 Sedimentary Rocks Rocks that are formed through a series of processes: erosion, deposition, compaction and cementation. Erosion- particles carried away by wind or water. Deposition- particles placed in an area. Compaction- particles squeezed under pressure. Cementation- particles are glued together

20 Three Types of Sedimentary Rocks: A. Clastic- formed from pieces/fragments of rocks being squeezed together. Examples: Sandstone Conglomerate B. O rganic - made from remains of plants and/or animals. Limestone Shale C. Chemical- formed from minerals dissolving in water and then forms into crystals. Geodes

21 Rock Cycle- a series of processes on the earth’s surface and under the surface that slowly change rocks from one type to another.


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