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European Runway Safety Survey

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Presentation on theme: "European Runway Safety Survey"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Runway Safety Survey

2 The Problem of Runway Incursions in Europe

3 EUROCONTROL The main objectives of EUROCONTROL are to harmonise and integrate Air Navigation Services in Europe, aiming at the creation of a European Air Traffic Management System, to achieve the safe, orderly, expeditious and economic flow of air traffic throughout Europe.

4 Traffic Growth Traffic : increased threefold over last 25 years. Baseline forecasts : steady growth of 4% per annum. Traffic demand : expected to double over next 20 years. 1974 2000 2000 2020 What are the characteristics of Air Traffic within European airspace Traffic is predominantly within Europe : 88% (i.e. only 12% is transcontinental). Core area shows intense activity : 70 % flies over 10 % of the airspace. High percentage of short-haul flights : 60 % fly less than 400 NM (average flight distance is 472 NM). High ratio of climbing / descending traffic : 65 % of flight time below FL 300, thus making more complex the provision of ATC. What do the statistics say ? Looking back for an instant on the past, in grey on the histogram in the top right cormer of the slide, traffic figures speak for themselves : actual traffic has been multiplied by 3 over the last 25 years. In concrete terms that means that there were circumstances during 2000 with more than 28,000 flights a day (the peak days for 1997 had to cope with ). EUROCONTROL initiatives over the last years have had notable effects in curbing the level of delay : Over the ten years ( ) of the harmonisation and integration programme for European ATC, air traffic has increased significantly (+50%). The fact that the European ATM System has accomodated this increase while generally containing delays, shows that it has increased its overall capacity. Will the trend continue like this in future ? The Agency forecast service indicates that the traffic growth rate for a baseline scenario will decrease from +5.8% in 2000 to +3.0% in 2015. With a traffic demand of more than flights on busy days, in 1997, 1% of traffic increase was potentially generating an increase in delay of 5% to 6%. Despite increasingly complex traffic situations (traffic demand of flights, like during busy days of last year), a 1% traffic increase generates now a potential for 4.7% increase in delay (the increase reached 8% in 1998). This demonstrates the general improvement trend, though recognising that delay reductions are more and more difficult to achieve with traffic increase. Traffic demand is expected to almost double over the next 20 years. Consequently the traffic density met in the core area today will be found almost throughout Europe in future. Note : Technical explanation on the 2000 and 2020 charts The two charts are based on traffic (CRCO source) between city pairs and built as if flights were navigating along great circle routes (i.e. not the ARN). The charts are the aggregation of volumes of airspace having a basis of around 40 square Nautical Miles (6’ by 10’). Each red elementary volume depicts a mean daily traffic demand of more than 150 flights, more than 100 for the yellow and more than 50 for the green. DIVISION DED 4 - 4/11/97

5 ECAC States (38) Albania Armenia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia
Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco The Netherlands The former Yugoslav -Republic of Macedonia Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

6 Investigated Runway Incursions
Data collected through: MANDATORY REPORTING SCHEME and INTERVIEWS of 12 European Airports

7 Risk of Runway Incursions
100 Number Of Runway Incursions Per 1,000,000 Operations 10 1 Rate of Runway Incursions in 9 different European airports

8 Severity distribution of reported Runway Incursions
CATEGORY A CATEGORY D Little or no Potential Significant Potential 5% 31% 30% Good Potential CATEGORY B 34% Fair Potential CATEGORY C Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme

9 Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations
Pilot Deviations Operational Errors 44% 30% 26% Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme

10 Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations
60% 3 Airports feedback 50% Mandatory Scheme 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Pilot Deviations Operational Errors Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations

11 The Perception of Runway Incursions Risk

12 Pilots and ATCO perceptions
Outcomes of the Questionnaire...

13 Risk Perception (I) Within the last year, do you think the number of Runway Incursion has...

14 Risk Perception (II) How would you rank “Runway Incursion” among other runway safety concerns ...

15 What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (I)
Pilots ATCOs

16 What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (II)
Pilots ATCOs

17 To summarise ... AVAILABILITY of data: few available data at the time of the survey (no reporting scheme or reluctance to share information?) Approach for ANALYSIS: difficult to combine data (no harmonised approach) Underlying CAUSAL FACTORS: difficult to understand why Runway Incursion occurs

18 Task Force to develop recommendations
GASR - EUROCONTROL - ICAO - JAA - IATA - IFATCA - IFALPA - ACI - IAOPA - AEA - ERA - ECA Not locked into cycle of continuous data collection Time scales short short term End Jan 2003 medium term - Jan 2004 long term Jan 2005 Majority of recommendations complete by Jan 2003

19 RECOMMENDATIONS GENERAL AREAS 1 Awareness 2 Data Collection
3 Communications 4 Procedures and working methods (PILOT/ATC/Driver 5 Annex 14 6 Airport Aeronautical Information 7 New Technologies 8 Human Factors 9 Regulatory

20 1 Awareness Establish a local joint team (ATC/Aircrew/Airport)
Achieve Standardisation through ICAO Provisions Establish a Runway Safety Programme General Awareness campaign by Task Force Dedicated local awareness campaigns Implement a Safety Management System (SMS) Introduce Runway Safety into SMS to identify risks & mitigation Promotion of Recommendations

21 2 Data Collection and Lesson learning
Improve data collection - standard reporting/investigation Standard agreed definitions All data to be collected in data base for trend analysis Non punitive reporting systems Local Runway Safety Survey to be conducted (as per SMS) to identify hazards Disseminate disidentified details of incidents/occurrence's both European wide/locally

22 3 Communications Confirm use of standard ICAO phraseology
Explicit runway crossing clearances Read back Runway crossing on single frequency Clarify rules associated with conditional clearance R/T, language and phraseology proficiency All communications associated with runway in English Driver training programmes introduced

23 4 Procedures and Working Methods
Pilot procedures - best practice Standard taxi routes - reduce workload near runway Use of line up and wait Inspection opposite direction Use of blocker strips Use of Capacity Enhancing Procedures Access of vehicles to manoeuvring area Cross runways at 90° when possible

24 5 Annex 14 Confirm implementation of Annex 14 provisions - markings/signage/lighting etc. Identify needs to enhance ground markings Implementation of Standard ICAO taxiway naming conventions

25 6 Provision of Airport Information
Management Process for charts/publications for accuracy Establish feedback mechanism with users to detect errors Improve ergonomics of maps AIS standardisation

26 7 New Technologies Consider new technologies as prevention or safety net Moving ways/graphical displays in cockpits - situational awareness Assessment of value of automated conflict detection systems

27 8 Human Factors Understand HF issues contributing to Runway Safety Events TRM /CRM Use of multiple capacity enhancing procedures.

28 9 Regulatory Licensing of Aerodromes - degree of compliance
Assessment of SMS systems

29 Occurrences Be200 Expect Crossing Clearance B747 Conditional/read back
HS121 Cross runway in use (23) B747 Line Up

30 Summary All States cultures/language/ATM Systems
Recommendations cover most areas Result of Joint action - First in Europe European action could stop the majority of events leading to Runway Incursion - however we are aware that to remove potential hazards completely will be very difficult

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