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© 2002 EUROCONTROL 1 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL European Runway Safety Survey P. Wilson EUROCONTROL
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 2 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL The Problem of Runway Incursions in Europe
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 3 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL The main objectives of EUROCONTROL are to harmonise and integrate Air Navigation Services in Europe, aiming at the creation of a European Air Traffic Management System, to achieve the safe, orderly, expeditious and economic flow of air traffic throughout Europe.
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 4 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL DIVISION DED 4 - 4/11/97 Traffic Growth Traffic : increased threefold over last 25 years. Baseline forecasts : steady growth of 4% per annum. Traffic demand : expected to double over next 20 years
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 5 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Monaco The Netherlands The former Yugoslav -Republic of Macedonia Norway Poland Portugal ECAC States (38) Albania Armenia Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Romania Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 6 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Investigated Runway Incursions Data collected through: MANDATORY REPORTING SCHEME and INTERVIEWS of 12 European Airports
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 7 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Risk of Runway Incursions Number Of Runway Incursions Per 1,000,000 Operations Rate of Runway Incursions in 9 different European airports
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 8 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Severity distribution of reported Runway Incursions Significant Potential 5% Good Potential 30% Fair Potential 34% Little or no Potential 31% CATEGORY A CATEGORY B CATEGORY C CATEGORY D Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 9 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations Pilot Deviations 44%Operational Errors 30% Vehicle/Pedestrian Deviations 26% Source: Mandatory Reporting Scheme
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 10 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Occurrence Types Related to Runway Operations 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Pilot DeviationsOperational ErrorsVehicle/Pedestrian Deviations 3 Airports feedback Mandatory Scheme
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 11 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL The Perception of Runway Incursions Risk
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 12 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Pilots and ATCO perceptions Outcomes of the Questionnaire...
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 13 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Risk Perception (I) Within the last year, do you think the number of Runway Incursion has...
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 14 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Risk Perception (II) How would you rank “Runway Incursion” among other runway safety concerns...
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 15 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Pilots ATCOs What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (I)
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 16 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Pilots ATCOs What in your opinion was a contributing cause ? (II)
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 17 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL To summarise... AVAILABILITY of data: few available data at the time of the survey (no reporting scheme or reluctance to share information?) Approach for ANALYSIS: difficult to combine data (no harmonised approach) Underlying CAUSAL FACTORS: difficult to understand why Runway Incursion occurs
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 18 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Task Force to develop recommendations GASR - EUROCONTROL - ICAO - JAA - IATA - IFATCA - IFALPA - ACI - IAOPA - AEA - ERA - ECA Not locked into cycle of continuous data collection Time scales short short term -End Jan 2003 medium term -Jan 2004 long term -Jan 2005 Majority of recommendations complete by Jan 2003
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 19 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL RECOMMENDATIONS GENERAL AREAS 1 Awareness 2 Data Collection 3 Communications 4 Procedures and working methods (PILOT/ATC/Driver 5 Annex 14 6 Airport Aeronautical Information 7 New Technologies 8 Human Factors 9 Regulatory
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 20 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 1 Awareness Establish a local joint team (ATC/Aircrew/Airport) Achieve Standardisation through ICAO Provisions Establish a Runway Safety Programme General Awareness campaign by Task Force Dedicated local awareness campaigns Implement a Safety Management System (SMS) Introduce Runway Safety into SMS to identify risks & mitigation Promotion of Recommendations
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 21 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 2 Data Collection and Lesson learning Improve data collection - standard reporting/investigation Standard agreed definitions All data to be collected in data base for trend analysis Non punitive reporting systems Local Runway Safety Survey to be conducted (as per SMS) to identify hazards Disseminate disidentified details of incidents/occurrence's both European wide/locally
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 22 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 3 Communications Confirm use of standard ICAO phraseology Explicit runway crossing clearances Read back Runway crossing on single frequency Clarify rules associated with conditional clearance R/T, language and phraseology proficiency All communications associated with runway in English Driver training programmes introduced
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 23 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 4 Procedures and Working Methods Pilot procedures - best practice Standard taxi routes - reduce workload near runway Use of line up and wait Inspection opposite direction Use of blocker strips Use of Capacity Enhancing Procedures Access of vehicles to manoeuvring area Cross runways at 90° when possible
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 24 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 5 Annex 14 Confirm implementation of Annex 14 provisions - markings/signage/lighting etc. Identify needs to enhance ground markings Implementation of Standard ICAO taxiway naming conventions
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 25 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 6 Provision of Airport Information Management Process for charts/publications for accuracy Establish feedback mechanism with users to detect errors Improve ergonomics of maps AIS standardisation
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 26 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 7 New Technologies Consider new technologies as prevention or safety net Moving ways/graphical displays in cockpits - situational awareness Assessment of value of automated conflict detection systems
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 27 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 8 Human Factors Understand HF issues contributing to Runway Safety Events TRM /CRM Use of multiple capacity enhancing procedures.
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 28 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL 9 Regulatory Licensing of Aerodromes - degree of compliance Assessment of SMS systems
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 29 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Occurrences Be200Expect Crossing Clearance B747Conditional/read back HS121Cross runway in use (23) B747Line Up
© 2002 EUROCONTROL 30 ‘ One Sky for Europe’ EUROCONTROL Summary All States cultures/language/ATM Systems Recommendations cover most areas Result of Joint action - First in Europe European action could stop the majority of events leading to Runway Incursion - however we are aware that to remove potential hazards completely will be very difficult
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