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“In current circumstances, Galician is doomed.” Rubén Huerta Izquierdo, Andrea Lobrera Doyague, Charlotte Callaghan, Rachel Hopkinson, Paul Kelly,

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Presentation on theme: "“In current circumstances, Galician is doomed.” Rubén Huerta Izquierdo, Andrea Lobrera Doyague, Charlotte Callaghan, Rachel Hopkinson, Paul Kelly,"— Presentation transcript:

1 “In current circumstances, Galician is doomed.” Rubén Huerta Izquierdo, Andrea Lobrera Doyague, Charlotte Callaghan, Rachel Hopkinson, Paul Kelly,

2 Ancient and Medieval History Rubén Huerta Izquierdo

3 PREHISTORY Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods. Economy – Predatory activity: deer, roe deer, elephants, horses (A Coruña) mammoths (Lugo), etc. (archaeological sites of Braña Rubia and Buxan) – Ploughing (in particular the cereal harvest) – Probable fluvial exploitation ( A Guardia and Baiona) – Use of rudimentary tools made of stone (quartz generally) – Pottery (storage) Society – Small social units not very rigid nor stratified – Semi-nomadic settlements (archaeological site of Budiño) – Sexualized working specialization Religion – Primitive forms of a totemic religion and over-earthly beliefs – Primitive ritual burials

4 Megalithic Period Economy – Improvement of stone-made tools – Trade of farm surpluses – Cattle farming Society – Interaction of dispersed social units Religion – Numerous collective burial mounds – Complex offertory ceremonies – Cave and pot paintings: life, death and fertility( Big Eyed goddess of Buriz)

5 Bronze Age Economy – Cattle-breeding shack of O Neixon – Primitive mining industry and trade: cupper, gold, lead, etc. (Weapons and jewellery) – Budiño, Taraio, Santa Comba Society – Importance of war – Incipient organization in hierarchy: high social status of the warrior Religion – Individual burials : the difference between the individual and the community – Abundant funeral offerings – Swords of Alcaian and the Pot of Leiro (A Coruña): offerings to Nature. – The Stone of Beillosa: a funeral monument to fertility – New funeral symbolism: the figure of the deer

6 ANCIENT AGES Castro Culture (final Bronze Age to 1 st century a. C) Economy – Cereal harvest – Cow, pig and sheep stockbreeding. – Hunting and shellfishing – Mining activity: gold, lead, cooper and iron. – Trade activity with the south of the Iberian Peninsula – Greek geographer Strabo’s theory about silver coins. Society and Politics – Absence of a State – Political, economic and religious agglutinating/ confronting institutions – Patriarchal society: military and political power of men – The power of the feminine figure, marriage and the filial line

7 Castro Culture (final Bronze Age to 1 st century a. C) Social groups: – Clan, whose members considered themselves to belong to the same family, and were not allowed to marriage each other. – Century, a military-political unit exclusively consisting of men, who were under the control of a leader. – Populus, a territorially well-defined unit whose capital is found to be called forum. This unit did not exert political authority. – *Gens gallaecia Social classes: – Druids and leaders – Warrior aristocracy – Misserrima plebs, a dependant population of pre-Celtic origins

8 Castro Culture (final Bronze Age to 1 st century a. C) Religion – Tripartite system of deity classification: – Juridical powerful deities (Jupiter) – War deities (Cosus, Ares, Mars) – Fertility deities – Lares viales, deities of funeral character present in nowadays Galician folk. They are adored in crossroads and paths as regarded in the Hermathena of Amorin ( Pontevedra) and they guided the deaths’ souls to the Hades. – Necropolis of Meirás

9 Castro Culture (final Bronze Age to 1 st century a. C) Romanization process: deep political, economic, social and religious changes. – Presence of the Roman army – Colonization – Right of citizenship – Public administration – Viae (routes and ways) and material culture – Trade Latin as the official language of the Empire.

10 Roman Empire Domination

11 Early Empire Domination (1 st -3 rd centuries) Economy – The Roman villa as a rural residence and an agricultural exploitation centre (since II b. C) – Rich owners – New agricultural techniques introduced – Improvement of mining techniques – Mining trade supervisor: the Roman procurator Society – Roman demographic control – Migratory movements (soldiers and miners) – Social classes ( little importance) – Free people: senatorial ordus, equestrian ordus and local oligarchies. – Slaves Religion – Permanence of native beliefs – Cult to the Emperor (Aras Sastianas building) – Roman pantheon of deities introduced

12 Late Empire Domination (till 5 th century) Economy – Exterior trade – Crisis of cities Society – Social instability – Possesores and the autarchic system (ecclesiastical and government people) – Humiliores, country people and slaves Religion – Late incorporation of Christianity – Unreliability of Apostle Santiago’s predication theory. – Importance of military forces in the spread of Christianity. – Priscilianism and rural spread of Christianity – Sectarian character – Against ecclesiastical hierarchy and church-government association


14 Germanic Domination (6 th -8 th centuries) Politics – Germanic sackings – Flavious Constancio and the invading Germanic forces set an agreement (foedus) – King Hemeric – Orbigo battle (456): the end of the Suebe domination – Leovigild takes over Oporto and Braga (585): the beginning of the...

15 Visigothic Era Economy – Sedentary agriculture – Landowner/worker-based economic system: the seeds of feudalism Society – Suebes acquired Roman military authority – Native-Germanic fusion and integration Religion – Politically connected. – Reckiarius, first Suebe king converted to Christianity – The conversion of Resismund to Arianism as a proof of Visigothic domination – The conversion of Teodomir to Christianity as a crave for independence – Spread of orthodox Christian institutions in a popular sphere – Christian and pagan practices co-existing in the rural sphere. – Martin of Dumio – Creation of the monastery of Dumio – Braga Council I and II – Parrochiale Suevum, a document entailing the situation of Galician church between 572-582 – Influence of the austere Fathers of the Desert

16 Early feudalism ( 8 th -11 th centuries) Politics – Galicia as connected to Asturian sphere – Alfonso I and Ramiro I: the incorporation of Galicia to the Kingdom of Asturias – Galician rebellions against Asturian domination Economy – New landownership: the nobility and the extinction of small landowners – Economic inequality – Enlargement of noblemen’s lands: vassalage relationships – The value of inheritance Society – Social hierarchy as a consequence of political and economic relations – The value of noblemen’s protection – The power of earldoms as given by real consent – The Earl of Présaras Religion – The find of Apostle Santiago’s tomb – Main Christian see is set in Santiago de Compostela – Association to nobility – Sobrado and Celanova monasteries

17 The peak of feudalism (12 th -13 th centuries) Politics – Wealth-based politic structure – Castilian territorial centralization (Alfonso VII) – Prevalence of noble and ecclesiastical privileges (Gelmírez) Economy – Economic expansion of rural world – New agricultural techniques – Wine production – Port development – Trade development – Monetary intensification – New economic values: the material production in the cities

18 The peak of feudalism (12 th -13 th centuries) Society – Urban renaissance (Arzua, Mellid, Portomarín) – Four social groups according to economical criteria: – Ecclesiastical noblemen – Noble laymen – Farmers – Urbanized farmers – Fixed social hierarchy and estability Religion – The peak of the Jacobean Route – Economic and political power of monasteries – The power of Diego Gelmírez, first archbishop of Santiago – The building of Santiago Minster – Spread of Cistercian Order – Regula Benedicti: the Order of Cluny – Mendicant orders: the Dominican and the Franciscan friars

19 Late Middle Ages (13 th -15 th centuries) Politics – Tension between the church,the nobility and the new urban bourgeoisie – Civil war between Enrique II and the nobility – Castilian anarchy – The irmandiña urban uprising (1467-1469) against nobility – The supremacy of noblemen Economy – Scarce natural resources and famine – General impoverishment of nobility and farmers – Economic crises – Urban economic importance for trading – The bubonic plague in 1348 – Scarce labour – The creation of the military Galician Brotherhood against nobility

20 Late Middle Ages (13 th -15 th centuries) Society – Social tensions generalized ( The burning of the Fortress of Felpós in 1321) – The new nobility: Osorio, Moscoso, Andrade, Ulloa, Sotomayor, etc Religion – Ecclesiastical complementary economic requirements – Generalized aversion against ecclesiastical institutions and Episcopal cities

21 Modern History Andrea Lobrera Doyague

22 16th Century The ruling classes spoke Castilian. Galician people spoke Galician. Diglossia – Castilian was the higher variety – Galician the lower variety There was not bilingualism but two monolingual groups. Los Reyes Católicos attempted a “Castellanización” of the region.

23 17th Century Os Séculos Escuros comprises 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Three different groups of speakers: – Monolingual group of Castilian – Bilingual group of both Castilian and Galician – Monolingual group of Galician Galician Aristocracy did not master Castilian. An inferiority feeling arouse around Galician.

24 18th Century Séculos Escuros Siglo de las luces (Enlightenment) Diglossic situation that was replacing Galician for Castilian. There were few pieces of literature. Galician was claimed to be an identity hallmark. A recovery of Galician started at this time.

25 18 th Century continued – In 1708 a political debate was made in Galician – Padre Sarmiento made a glossary in Galician – Diego Antonio Cernadas e Castro published some of his poems in Galician Frei Benito Xerónimo Feixoo Montenegro: “o galego non era unha forma corrupta do castellan, senón irmán xémeo do portugués e lingua romance con personalidade propria” (Freixeiro Mato, 67). Frei Martín Sarmiento, Cura de Fruime, Cornide Saavedra.

26 16th, 17th, 18th Centuries overview “La lengua se hundió hasta quedar en situación de mero dialecto, y en tal sentido, durante los siglos XVI, XVII, y XVIII raramente se la consideraba apropiada para documentos legales, y no poseía literatura propia. Continuó sirviendo, en forma más o menos corrompida, para las relaciones familiares y para el trato general dentro de la región; pero se consideró inapropiada para otros empleos como se puede ilustrar por una práctica moderna en Ferreiros (Orense), en donde los sermones e incluso las oraciones privadas se hacen sólo en español.” (Entwistle, 358)

27 19th Century Rexurdimiento. Galician is reborn as a literary language. – Rosalía de Castro, Curros Enríquez and Eduardo Pondal. Galeguismo is born as a political movement. Galician would be conditioned by politics being liberal times helpful for its development but absolutism would make the language go backwards.

28 20th Century Apart from Literature, Galician spreads to Politics, Science… “reivindicando a nosa lingua como meio natural de expresión en todas as facetas da vida” (Freixeiro Mato, 81). This step will help the Galeguista movement to lead to a Galician nationalism.

29 Nationalism The idea of Nationalism first started in the 19th Century when in 1843 the Junta Central de Galicia brought into question whether Galician should become independent or not: “debe o no este antiguo Reino declararse independiente” (Costa Clavell, 91). – 1847: A Junta Revolucionaria was created in Santiago de Compostela. – 1856: Students and workers

30 Nationalism continued – 1863: Cantares Gallegos by Rosalía de Castro – 1873: Galicia should become an Estado Gallego – 1883: “Esta Región erígese en Estado Autónomo y soberano, y adopta la forma democrática-republicana federal…” (Costa Clavell, 92). – 1897: Liga Gallega – 1916: Irmandades de Fala – 1920: Nos.

31 Nationalism continued “No queremos para el nacionalismo gallego una ideología traída de afuera sino hecha por nosotros mismos, extraída de los anhelos íntimos del alma del pueblo gallego. Nuestro nacionalismo, para ser algo, tiene que ser un galleguismo, y no un euskarismo o un catalanismo traducidos a nuestro idioma. De estos hermanos nuestros de la inmensa España, queremos el ejemplo de rebeldía y el acuerdo para la acción común, si es necesario, pero no las directrices mentales de nuestra intención nacionalista” (Risco, 77). ORGA El Partido Galleguista Everything stopped in 1936 due to the Spanish Civil War.

32 Franco Period Galician is completely banned. Galician publishing companies, institutions, magazines were persecuted. Buenos Aires: theatre plays, radio programs, Galician courses… From 1950 onwards the repression lessened. – In 1951 Editorial Galaxia is founded – Some cultural associations arouse – In 1964 Unión do Pobo Galego (UPG) – In 1965 Partido Socialista Galego (PSG)

33 Industrial Revolution Galician economy was based on agriculture, cattle farming and fishing. During 19 th Century there were some attempts to modernize these sectors although a real Industrial Revolution did not happen until 20 th Century. Again, in 1936, the Spanish Civil War interrupted every improvement that Galicians had been developing at the time. After the War, the second stage of the Industrial Revolution took place around 1950’s and 1960’s, being much stronger this time.

34 Education Charlotte Callaghan

35 Education Galician as a subject or vehicle language varies according to school and age. Artículo 12. 1.El gallego, como lengua propia de Galicia, es también lengua oficial en la enseñanza en todos los niveles educativos. O galego, como lingua propia de Galicia, e´ tame´n lingua o. cial no ensino en to´dolos nõ´veis educativos. Artículo 13. 1. Los niños tienen derecho a recibir la primera enseñanza en su lengua materna. Early 1980: Galician should be language of instruction for -around 8 of 25 hours p/week (primary) -10 of 30 hours (secondary) Beswick, 263 Legislation: 1981: Galician Language and Literature compulsory subjects on all educational levels (except higher education)

36 Pre-school: 0-2 and 3-5 “teachers will use the language that prevails among the pupils in a class. They will take the environmental language into account and will make sure that they learn the other official language of Galicia orally -and in writing-, within the appropriate limits of the term or course” (Decree 247/95). Urban: mostly Spanish Rural: both, Galician predominant 39% of centres never use Galician In 40% of schools 15 hours a week taught a week in Galician (1998)3 Reference: "Mercator-Education: European Network for Regional or Minority Languages and Education" Legislation: Use and Statistics:

37 Primary: 6-8, 8-10, 10-12 Legislation: Galician and Spanish are compulsory subjects for 4 hours a week Language of instruction in the area of natural, social and cultural knowledge. Use and Statistics: School conducted mainly in Spanish No linguistic teaching model for Galician Private schools use Spanish on all levels Rural/Urban divide: active bilinguals and passive bilinguals Mother tongue Galician Mother tongue Spanish GalicianSpanishGalicianSpanish Understand99.3%100%83.3%100% Can speak97.9%100%30.3%100% Can read40.1%100%45.1%100% Can write22.2%100%24.3%100% Table 4: Figure on the language skills and the pupils’ mother tongue. source: Study of the University of Vigo (1997-1999) in which 11 teams of Linguistic Normalization in different zones in Galicia were investigated. Mercator-Education CIG-Ensino & AS-PG survey: only 8.5% or (pre-) primary centres meet decree requirements Reference: "Mercator-Education: European Network for Regional or Minority Languages and Education"

38 Secondary: 12-16 Legislation: 4 subjects must be taught in Galician 2 obligatory subjects, 2 optional subjects Use: Public centres do not meet legal requirements -Lack of Galician bilingual or monolingual model Private institutions the only Galician-taught subject is the language itself. The Mesa pela Normalización Lingüística: parents and unions file complaints against non-observance of law Post-Secondary Education Legislation: 1 st Year: Philosophy taught in Galician 2 nd Year: History and Galician as common subjects Galician compulsory 3 hours a week Use: 2000-2001: all students had Galician as a subject It is unknown how many received necessary instruction in Galician CIG-Ensino/AS-PG survey: 22.9% of schools met legal requirements Reference: "Mercator-Education: European Network for Regional or Minority Languages and Education "

39 Primary Teaching Course Statutes of all 3 universities state Galician as the official language 1988: a Galician language entry exam was introduced – has same weighting as Spanish. All administrative documents in Galician Higher Education Legislation: Use: Spanish used more orally Is used more in social and humanities degrees Spanish teacher: 95-100% communication in Spanish Galician teacher: 45-50% oral interaction in Galician 35-45% writing in Galician Universities promote production, translation and publication of university level textbooks/exercise books. Legislation: Decree 489/97: Knowledge of Galician as determining requirement in becoming a civil servant Now: Autonomous government considering eliminating test for discriminatory reasons Not required for university level teachers Use: In-service training available – number teachers attending has fallen Teachers bought up in Franco era attended to rectify neglect of the language No textbooks for professional level Hard to quantify how many teachers start using Galician after course; attitudes towards it in education system appear unchanged Reference: "Mercator-Education: European Network for Regional or Minority Languages and Education"

40 Effectiveness of Education Laws AdministrationStudentsTeachers Understand100%99%92% Can Read100%92%90% Can write81%62%47% Can speak79%75%63% Habitual speakers 31%27%22% Speak at work36%19%20% Figures on language skills and use at universities Source: Data presented in the studies of Lorenzo A. (1996) and Rodríguez Neira, M. (1998a and 1998b) for the universities of Vigo and Santiago de Compostela respectively. Mercator-Education Galician appears to recede in spite of its presence in schools Galician: rural life/lack of formal education Spanish: urban life/access to formal education José del Valle No linguistic models (eg. Basque) thus balance between both languages not distributed evenly DXLP reaction: statement of “supporting” schools and avoid applying “pressure” Informed teachers of Decree 247/95 and prepared campaigns to increase awareness of parents associations Mercator-Education People under 26: studied Galician, can read, write and speak- 46.5% do so every day People over 40: never studied Galician, little ability to write, most can speak School-age children: more capable to read and write, do not tend to speak it. Why? Language of 1 of 3 poorest regions in Spain Lack of economic strength: more difficult to support linguistic claim Central government could also easily set their claim aside It is however, a more modern language due to its consistent use Lack of sense of pride in the language? Jorge A. Marbán

41 Galician Language Planning Rachel Hopkinson

42 The Spanish Constitution of 1978 Officially acknowledges the different cultures, traditions, languages and institutions in the preamble, which it claims to aim to protect. Article 2: “La constitucion se fundamenta en la indisoluble unidad de la Nacion espanola, patria comun e indivisible de todos los espanoles, y reconoce y garantiza el derecho a la autonomia de las nacionalidades y regiones que la integran y la solidaridad entre todas ellas.

43 Article 3 1) El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. Todos los españoles tienen el deber de conocerla y el derecho a usarla. 2) Las demás lenguas españolas seran también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autonomas de acuerdo con sus Estatutos. 3) La riqueza de las distintas modalidades lingüísticas de España es un patrimonio cultural que será objeto de especial respeto y protección.

44 Constitution of 1978 on the Statute of Autonomy; its obligations Article 140: “La constitucion garantiza la autonomia de los municipios. Estos gozaran de personalidad juridica plena. Su gobierno y administracion corresponde a sus respectivos Ayuntamientos, integrados por los Alcaldes y los Concejales. Los Concejales seran eligidos por los vecinos del municipio mediante sufracio universal igual, libre, directo y secreto, en la forma establecida por la ley. Los Alcaldes seran elegidos por los Concejales o por los vecinos. La ley regulara las condiciones en las que proceda el regimen del concejo abierto.”

45 Statute of Autonomy Article 143: That border provinces can go to self-government and become an Autonomous Community in accordance with the constitution.

46 Constitution of 1978; on the Statute of Autonomy Article 155 states that if the Autonomous Community does not fulfill the obligations of the constitution or other laws it imposes, or act in the best interests of the whole of Spain the government will intervene firstly by talking to the president of the Community, and if nothing is done, they will be able to use force to make sure it fulfills its obligations for the protection of general interest.

47 Linguistic Normalisation Law 3/1983: 15 th June Progressive normalisation of use of Galician States Galician as language of territory. All Galicians have the right and obligation to know it: Article 1: ‘El gallego es la lengua propia de Galicia. Todos los gallegos tienen el deber de conocerlo y el derecho de usarlo’.

48 Linguistic law of 1983 Article 2: Galician public powers guarantee normal use of Galician and Castilian. Both official languages of the Autonomous Community. Article 3: Nobody should be discriminated against for reasons of language. Tribunals for protection of right to use language.

49 Spanish also official language of Galicia. Article 4: Galician is the ‘lengua propia de Galicia’ and official language of its institutions in local Administration.

50 Article 6: In law, citizens have right to use Galician, orally and written, in administration of justice within Galicia. Administrative documents in Galicia are valid no matter which official language used. 3) ‘La junta de Galicia promovera, de acuerdo con los organos correspondientes, la progresiva normalizacion del uso del gallego en la Administracion de Justicia.’

51 Public documents executed in Galicia can be written out in either of the official languages. If no agreement reached over which language, both shall be used. Place names will be in Galician. Article 11: Jobs in autonomous and local administration- a certain level of both official languages is required.

52 Galician Media 23 Galician newspapers. CRTVG- 11 th July 1984. Lei de Galicia 9/1984. 1) Television de Galicia, S.A. 2) Radio Galega, S.A. Governed by board of directors appointed by Galician Parliament.

53 1. First language Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC) Galician Spanish Both Other

54 2. Daily language Only GalicianMore Galician More Spanish Only Spanish Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)

55 7. First language in the greatest seven towns

56 8. Daily language in the greatest seven towns Apud 2003 CUIG-IGE 2003; elaborated by Henrique Monteagudo. Filoloxía Galega (USC)

57 13. First and daily language

58 Language planning ‘Ensuring continuity in the intergenerational transmission of a language is a crucial element in the process of its maintenance’ (Joshua A. Fishman) The family as the best place to start with maintaining a language.

59 Political Overview of Galicia and comparisons with the Basque Country and Catalonia Paul Kelly

60 Key characteristics of 20 th century Galician politics Dominance of Partido Popular Lack of success for regional parties Preference for national parties over nationalist parties

61 Partido Popular in Galicia Partido Popular results in Galician Parliament Elections % of voteSeats March 1 st, 2009 Election Final Results - Galicia Totals 46.7 38/75 June 19, 2005 Election Results - Galicia Totals 45.2 37/75 October 21, 2001 Election Results - Galicia Totals 51.6 41/75 October 19, 1997 Election Results - Galicia Totals 52.2 42/75 October 17, 1993 Election Results - Galicia Totals 52.1 43/75 December 17, 1989 Election Results - Galicia Totals 44.0 38/75 Partido Popular results in General Elections from Galicia % of voteSeats/TotalSpain Total %Total PP seats/Total March 9, 2008 General Election Results – Galicia 43.9 11/2239.9154/350 March 14, 2004 General Election Results - Galicia 47.1 12/2437.7148/350 March 12, 2000 General Election Results – Galicia 54.0 16/2544.5183/350 March 3, 1996 General Election Results - Galicia 48.3 14/25 38.8 156/350 June 6, 1993 General Election Results - Galicia 47.1 15/2634.8 141/350 October 29, 1989 General Election Results - Galicia 39.0 14/2525.8107/350

62 Comparison with Catalonia and the Basque Country The Partido Popular is a right wing and centralist party, its success in Galicia is at great contrast with the results it receives in Catalonia and the Basque Country, in which the PP has never been the most successful party in general or autonomous parliament elections. PP’s best results in Catalonia: – 18 seats in Catalan Parliament in November 2010 regional parliament election – 12 seats in the Cortes in 2000 general election and (INSERT NUMBER OF CATALAN SEATS WON IN 20-N ELECTIONS HERE) PP’s best results in Basque Country: – Currently holds 13 out of 75 seats in regional parliament, best result 19 out of 75 in 2001

63 Lack of success for Galician nationalist parties – In every General Election since the first in 1977 Galician voters have ranked the PSOE and the PP higher than all regional parties. – In other words, no Galician party has ever been more successful than the main two modern Spanish political parties in general elections. – 1986 was the first time any regional party stood in a general election, winning only 6.2% of the popular vote and 1 seat out of a possible 27. – Only in 1997 and 2001 did the Bloque Nacionalista Galego finish above PSOE in the elections to the Galician parliament to come in 2 nd place behind the PP

64 Comparison with Catalonia and the Basque Country This contrasts with the Basque elections where – The PNV in coalition with other Basque nationalist parties has been the largest party in the Basque parliament in every election since 1977 with the exception of the 1986 election when the PSOE won, and has never been out of the top two parties in general elections from the Basque Country and enormously so with the Catalan elections – where Convergencia i Unió has controlled the Catalan parliament in every election since 1980, and it was considered a major victory for the PP to receive 12.4% and 18 seats in the Catalan parliament elections in November 2010. In terms of general elections, the Bloc Nacionalista Galega is largely insignificant. – In 2008 it won 2 seats at general election, compared to 10 for the CiU (3 rd biggest party) and 6 for the PNV (2 nd biggest party)

65 What does the 20-N General Election mean for Galicia?

66 Senate Elections In A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra, the PP won 3 senate seats, the PSdeG-PSOE won 1 in each. Therefore out of 16 Galician senators, 12 are from the PP, 4 are from the PSdeG-PSOE There are no representatives of Galician nationalist parties in the Senate. Seats in Catalonia split between PSC (PSC-PSOE)- ICV-EUA) with 7 and CiU with 9 Basque Senators PP 3, PSE-EE (PSOE) 2, EAJ-PNV 4, AMAIUR 3

67 Congreso Elections Resumen del escrutinio de Total España Escrutado: 100 % Escaños totales: 350 Votos contabilizados: 2459055771.69 % Abstenciones: 971077528.31 % Votos nulos: 3178861.29 % Votos en blanco: 3330951.37 % Votos por partidos en Total España PARTIDOESCAÑOSVOTOS PP 1861083069344.62 % PSOE 110697388028.73 % CiU 1610142634.17 % IU 1116808106.92 % AMAIUR 73336281.37 % UPyD 511402424.69 % PNV 53235171.33 % ERC 32563931.05 % BNG 21832790.75 % CC-NC-PNC 21435500.59 % COMPROMÍS-Q 11251500.51 % FAC 1991730.4 % GBAI1424110.17 %

68 Congreso results from Galicia Votos por partidos en Galicia PARTIDOESCAÑOSVOTOS PP 1585573252.52 % PSdeG-PSOE 645123327.69 % BNG 218327911.25 % EU-V 0671824.12 % UPyD 0199961.22 % EQUO 099960.61 % PACMA 070850.43 %

69 Catalonia and the Basque Country Votos por partidos en Cataluña PARTIDOESCAÑOSVOTOS CiU 16101426329.35 % PSC-PSOE 1492032326.63 % PP 1171580220.71 % ICV-EUiA 32795998.09 % ERC - / ESQUERRA 32442457.06 % Votos por partidos en País Vasco PARTIDOESCAÑOSVOTOS AMAIUR 628452824.12 % PNV 532351727.42 % PSE-EE (PSOE) 425410521.54 % PP 321000017.8 % IU 0435223.68 % UPyD 0211651.79 % EQUO0152571.29 %

70 Bibliography: ecaLeisdeGalicia/Lei9_1984.pdf ecaLeisdeGalicia/Lei9_1984.pdfñ%C3%ADa_de_Radio_Televisi ón_de_Galiciañ%C3%ADa_de_Radio_Televisi ón_de_Galicia Galician Statistics- Francisco Dubert Galician linguistic legislation; ley 3/1983, de 15 de junio. Spanish Constitution 1978 ities/galicia/ ities/galicia/ x. x

71 Bibliography Rubén Emilio González López, Grandeza e Decadencia do reino de Galicia, Editorial Galaxia, Vigo 1978. J.C. Bermejo, M.C Pallares, J.M. Pérez, E. Portela, J.M. Vázquez, R. Villares, Historia de Galicia, Editorial Alhambra, Madrid, 1982. Ramón Villares, A Historia, Biblioteca Básica da Cultura Galega, Editorial Galaxia, Vigo, 1984. Alain Tranoy, Milagros Cavada Nieto, Mercedes Durany Castrillo, “ IX Xornadas de Historia de Galicia”, Diputación Provincial de Ourense, 1988. Amancio Isla Frez, La sociedad gallega en la alta Edad Media, Biblioteca de Historia: 12, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid 1992. Sharif Gemie, A Concise History of Galicia, University of Wales Press, Cardiff 2006. Charlotte (Main Source) Mar-Molinero, Clare. Spanish-Speaking World : A Practical Introduction to Sociolinguistic Issues. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge, 1997. p 136. Copyright © 1997. Routledge. All rights reserved. José del Valle (2000): Monoglossic policies for a heteroglossic culture: misinterpreted multilingualism in modern Galicia, Language and Communication, Vol. 20: Issue 2: 105-132, Pub.: Routledge Jaine Beswick (2002): Galician Language Planning and Implications for Regional Identity: Restoration or Elimination?, National Identities, 4:3, 257-271 URL: Jorge A. Marbán (1980): The Current Status of Galician in Spain, Hispania, Vol. 63, No. 3, 560-562, Pub.: American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese URL: (Accessed: 19/11/2011 09:33) (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela: Linguistic Normalisation rules)

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