Presentation on theme: "Poem TXORIA TXORI Hegoak ebaki banizkion nerea izango zen, ez zuen aldegingo. Baina honela ez zen gehiago txoria izango eta nik...txoria nuen maite. THE."— Presentation transcript:
Poem TXORIA TXORI Hegoak ebaki banizkion nerea izango zen, ez zuen aldegingo. Baina honela ez zen gehiago txoria izango eta nik...txoria nuen maite. THE BIRD WHO WAS A BIRD If I had cut his wings He would have been mine He would not have flown away But then, he would have been a bird no longer And it was the bird what I loved Mikel Laboa
Immigrant families involvement in their children education in The Autonomous Community of the Basque Country Nahia Intxausti Goldsmiths University of London 2009
1. First questions to be answered Where is the Basque Country? What is the Basque Country? What is the sociolinguistic context of the Basque Country? What is the Basque education system like?
Where is the Basque Country?
What is the Basque Country? Autonomous Community of the Basque Country Autonomous Community of Navarra Northern Basque Country
inhabitants Spanish and Basque are the two official languages of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country One area of the Autonomous Community of Navarra Mayor legal restriction of the Basque language in The Northern Basque Country (France) Most part of Autonomous Community of Navarra Bilingual speakers 24,7 % Positive attitude towards Basque Basque is important in social identity construction Sociolinguistic context of the Basque Country
Bilingual education: developed during the 60s Basque: official language in education Basque normalization law Decree of bilingualism A, B and D teaching models Education System in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country
Teaching models Model A: In Spanish. Basque as a subject Model B: Spanish and Basque Model D: In Basque. Spanish as a subject Not every model is offered in each school Bilingual models increasing Education System in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country
2. Immigration Foreign immigration 5,4 % in Basque Country (2008) 11,3 % in Spain (2008) Nationalities (2008): Half of them Latin American Rumanian (10,9%), Colombian (10,4%), Bolivian (10,1%), Moroccan (8,8%), Portuguese (7,5%), Ecuadorian (6,4%).
Educational context: 5,6 % Teaching model choices (07-08) StudentsImmigrants families´ children Model A: 20,24 % Model B: 23,16 % Model D: 55,98 % Model A: 41,26 % Model B: 29,14 % Model D: 29,58 % State schools: 53,38 %74,36 % Why choices are not going in the same direction?
Study Sample: 302 immigrant families Whose children have enrolled Primary Schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country From different countries of origin Statistical criteria: Type of school Teaching model Rural/ urban area Cuestionaire based on: Cualitative research (22 interviews with families)
Some questions… 1. How do they make their educational choices? 2. Do they keep their language of origin? What strategies are mainly used by them? 3. What expectations do they have towards childs level of language of origin?
1. Educational choices Reasons for school choice within families 51 % Proximity 39,1 % Somebodys advice 35,1 % Educational Government allocation 28,8 % Language of school 28,5 % Family or compatriots attendance 7,9 % Type of school (state/private) 3,6 % Religious identity of the school
1. Educational choices Reasons for school choice within families Practical reasons are important: i.e.proximity, advice Importance of Schooling Committee Language of the school is important (for families enrolled in model A/B) The Social network influence
1. Educational choices Reasons for teaching model choice within families 63,2 % School offers only one model 35,8 % Learn Basque language 27,5 % Avoid problems with Basque language 19,5 % Attain Basque identity 14,9 % Have Schools chosen for them 11,3 % Advice
1. Educational choices Reasons for teaching model choice within families Many of the families did not make a choice Learn Basque language No relation with origin Families from model A/B Avoid problems with Basque language 63 % families of Model A Families with Spanish as their mother tongue Advices are less common
2. Language of origin Its use 94,4 % speak their language of origin at home 52,6 % speak their language of origin at home and in the streets (%95,5 of them have Spanish as their mother tongue) 5,6 % stop using their language of origin
2. Language of origin Its use Minority language as a mother tongue -C.O 61,3% continue using it at home 38,7% stop using it Majority language as a mother tongue -C.O 98,15% continue using it at home 1,85% stop using it
TV use 47 % continue watching chanels from their original country (more common in families where Spanish is not the mother tongue) Music listening 81,5 % continue to listen to music from their original country Religious practices 58,3 % continue religious practices in their mother tongue (arabian speakers, rumanian speakers, spanish speakers..) 2. Language of origin
Literacy practices in their language of origin at home Reading 34,8 % of families read with their children 9,6 % of families whose language is a minority language in their original country Writing 33,1 % do writing activities with their children 9,67 % of families whose language is a minority language in their country 2. Language of origin
Classes in their language of origin Are offered only outside the school 7,65 % of children attend language classes Only arabian classes are attended 2. Language of origin
Expectations for their children´s future knowledge of language of origin 36,1 % very high level 33,4 % high level 17,5 % medium level 7,3 % low level 5,6 % very low level Families whose mother tongue is Spanish are more positive Families whose mother tongue is a minority language are less positive 3. Expectations
In your opinion, could be any finding related to language and power? Natives point of view - If you were basque native, which model would you recommend them? (model A, B, D) - Would be easier for natives to advise immigrants families if Basque language were normalized in Basque Country? 3. Some new questions...
- Do sociolinguistic and educational problems in the Basque Country come along with immigrants? - Their arrival remind us how much is still to be done regarding the Basque normalization and pedagogical strategies
In your opinion, could be any finding related to language and power? Immigrants families point of view - Why no-spanish families do not complain of learning in basque? 3. Some new questions...
Immigrants families point of view - Why families from Latin American are more afraid of learning in basque? - Why families from minority languages do not keep their original language as much as the others? 3. Some new questions...
Thank you! Nahia Intxausti University of the Basque Country -
4. Programmes and resources Department of Education - Student programme: Basque immigration plan - Multilingual guide: Basque Education System - Schooling Commitees: avoid guetization - Translation service - An standarised form to register newcomer - Training programmes
Department of Education - Advice on incorporation, treatment and monitoring - Funding: language support classes in Spanish and Basque. - Teachers claim more resources. - Newcomers mother language: Portuguese programme 4. Programmes and resources
Other associations - Meetings among different language communities: information exchange - Meetings to exchange activities to teach newcomers Basque - Informative leaflet published in some villages 4. Programmes and resources
Are challenges new? - Tendency of cultural homogeneization - Sociolinguistic problems of the Basque Country 5. New challenges?
Tendency of cultural homogeneization Were our classrooms culturally diverse before? Did not we have gypsies, catalans, galicians... in our classrooms? Did we take into account this cultural diversity? 5. New challenges?
Sociolinguistic situation Which advise will be the best one? Will be easier for us to advise if our language were normalized in Basque Country? Their arrival remind us how much is still to be done regarding the Basque normalization 5. New challenges?
We should not demand from them Basque skills as we do not demand it from ourselves or in our closest social context. We should offer them what society at large has on offer to anyone of us in order for them to stop feeling like immigrants. Conclusion
Respect for the process of normalisation: we should keep them informed Positive attitude towards Basque: we should be friendly with them Willingness to learn Basque Referring to jobs? Basque schools are willing to DEMAND from newcomers