Presentation on theme: "Dualism. Substance Dualism : Human beings have both a material body and an immaterial mind."— Presentation transcript:
Substance Dualism : Human beings have both a material body and an immaterial mind.
Nature likewise teaches me by these sensations of pain, hunger, thirst, etc., that I am not only lodged in my body as a pilot in a vessel, but that I am besides so intimately conjoined, and as it were intermixed with it, that my mind and body compose a certain unity. For if this were not the case, I should not feel pain when my body is hurt, seeing I am merely a thinking thing, but should perceive the wound by the understanding alone, just as a pilot perceives by sight when any part of his vessel is damaged
Interactionism : The mind and body of a human being enter into direct two-way causal interaction.
I attentively examined what I was, and as I observed that I could suppose that I had no body, and that there was no world nor any place in which I might be; but that I could not therefore suppose that I was not… I thence concluded that I was a substance whose whole essence or nature consists only in thinking, and which, that it may exist, has need of no place, nor is dependent on any material thing; so that “I,” that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am, is wholly distinct from the body. Discourse on Method
Ravenscroft says that this argument shows “the principle of the indiscernibility of identical does not work when the properties in question involve psychological states like believing and thinking.” In other words, (A2)-(C2) shows that Leibniz’s Law is invalid. Do you think that Ravenscroft is right about this? Why or why not?
I know that all which I clearly and distinctly conceive can be produced by God exactly as I conceive it… And although I may… possess a body with which I am very closely conjoined; nevertheless, because, on the one hand, I have a clear and distinct idea of myself, in as far as I am only a thinking and unextended thing, and as, on the other hand, I possess a distinct idea of body, in as far as it is only an extended and unthinking thing, it is certain that I, that is, my mind, by which I am what I am, is entirely and truly distinct from my body, and may exist without it.
Conceivability-Entails-Possibility : If we can conceive of something having a property, then that object could have that property.
The Conceivability Argument 1.I can conceive of myself existing without my body. 2.If (1), then I could exist without my body. 3.My body could not exist without my body. 4.[So] I am not identical to my body.
The Parody Argument 1.I can conceive of Superman (SM) existing without Clark Kent (CK). 2.If (1), then SM could exist without CK. 3.CK could not exist without CK. 4.[So] SM is not identical to CK.