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Metaphysics Part II. Thought Experiment: Physical & Mental Properties A1. 2 more objects: quarters, books, grass… A2. 2 more physical descriptors: green,

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Presentation on theme: "Metaphysics Part II. Thought Experiment: Physical & Mental Properties A1. 2 more objects: quarters, books, grass… A2. 2 more physical descriptors: green,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Metaphysics Part II

2 Thought Experiment: Physical & Mental Properties A1. 2 more objects: quarters, books, grass… A2. 2 more physical descriptors: green, heavy, wet… A3. 2 more physical locations, positions, or motions: jumping, talking, across the yard…. B1. 2 more mental contents: hopes, doubts, ideas… B2. 2 more mind descriptors: skeptical, clever, intelligent…. B3. 2 more mental activity descriptors: thinking, guessing, hoping…. A2 & B2 Difference? A3 & B3 Difference? A2 + B1 + A3 = ?. B2 + B3 + A1 =?

3 Principle of Non-Identity of Discernibles “If two things do not have exactly identical properties, then they are not identical.” Physical Events vs. Mental Events

4 Questionnaire on Mind-Body Page The physical world is the only kind of reality there is. 2. The mind is something nonphysical yet real. 3. “Mind” is simply a word that refers to brain activity. 4. Mind and brain interact and are different entities. 5. Physical brain events are the immediate cause of decisions. 6. Making a decision is not a physical event and does not have a physical cause. 7. Only physical events can cause other physical events. 8. An act of my will is not a physical event, but it can cause my body to perform some physical action. 9. Someday, science will be able to explain everything a person thinks and feels. 10. The mind and its activities will never be completely explained by brain science.

5 The Mind-Body Problem Choose 3: 1. The body is a physical thing. 2. The mind is a non-physical thing. 3. The mind and the body interact and causally affect one another. 4. Nonphysical things cannot causally interact with physical things.

6 Descartes’ Argument from Doubt I can doubt my body exists. I cannot doubt my mind exists. If two things do not have exactly identical properties, then they cannot be identical. Therefore, the mind and the body are not identical

7 Descartes’ Argument from Divisibility The body is divisible. The mind is indivisible. It two things do not have exactly the same properties, then they cannot be identical. Therefore, the mind and the body are not identical.

8 Argument from Consciousness The mind is a thing that thinks and is self-aware. The body is not a thing that thinks and is not self-aware. It two things do not have exactly the same properties, then they cannot be identical. Therefore, the mind and the body are not identical.

9 Can you conceive of yourself experiencing reality in the body of someone else? Is the “real” you the thinking part of you or the physical part of you?

10 Interactionalism The mind and the body, though different, causally interact with one another. Someone hugs me and I think and feel..… I desire a date with a smart, successful businesswoman, so I…..

11 The “Place” of Interaction?

12 Questions about Dualism Does the dualist’s view of the mind and body offer a legitimate challenge to scientific, physical explanations of consciousness, reality, and experience? Does dualism allow for natural and physical laws and human freedom to coexist? Does dualism allow science and religion to coexist? Does dualism imply immortality? Is dualism required for us to have an meaningful experience of self?


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