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Chapter 4 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach Amber Malmstead.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach Amber Malmstead."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach Amber Malmstead

2 Defining Performance 4.1

3  Includes measurements of:  Behavior  What an Employee does  Results  The outcomes of an Employee’s behavior Performance Management Systems

4 Characteristics of Performance Behaviors Evaluative  Can be judged: negative, positive, neutral  The behavior’s contribution to the individual, unit, or organization Multidimensional  Many different behaviors that advance or hinder organization’s goals

5 Not all Behaviors are Measurable Evaluate the results

6 Determinants of Performance 4.2

7  Declarative Knowledge  Procedural Knowledge  Motivation Performance Factors

8  Knowledge of facts and things  Task requirements  Labels  Principles  Goals Declarative Knowledge

9  Knowing what to do and how to do it  Cognitive skills  Physical skills  Motor skills  Interpersonal skills Procedural Knowledge

10  Choice to expend effort  Choice of level of effort  Choice to persist in the expenditure of that level of effort Motivation

11 Declarative Knowledge Procedural Knowledge MotivationPerformance

12 1.Approach Performance with the goal of getting better 2.As you are performing, focus on what is happening and why you are doing things the way you do 3.After your task, seek performance feedback from expert sources; the more sources the better 4.Build mental models of your job, situation, and organization 5.Repeat steps 1-4 continually Deliberate Practice

13  A lack one or combination of Declarative Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, or motivation causes poor performance  Possible solution: Employee Training  There may not be a solution Implications for Addressing Performance Problems

14  Employee past experiences  Human resources (HR) practices  Work environment  Survivor Syndrome: cause by downsizing  Results in employee frustration, resentment, anger, and negative effect on motivation Factors Influencing Determinants of Performance

15 Performance Dimensions 4.3

16  Task Performance  Tasks involving the production process from raw materials to final good or service  Contextual Performance  Behavior contributing to an organization‘s effectiveness caused by a good working environment  Teamwork and Trust Two Important Types of Behavior

17  Activities that transform raw material into goods and services  Activities that help with the organization’s transformation process in efficiency and effectiveness:  Replenishing the supply of raw materials  Distributing its finished product  Providing planning and coordination  Supervising  Staff functions Task Performance

18  Persisting enthusiasm and exerting extra effort as necessary to successfully complete a task  Volunteering to carry our tasks not formally a part of the job  Helping and cooperating with others  Following organizational rules and Procedures  Endorsing, supporting, and defending organizational objectives Contextual Performance

19 Task PerformanceContextual Performance Varies across jobsFairly similar across jobs Likely to be role prescribedNot likely to be role prescribed Influence: abilities and skillsInfluenece: personality Table 4.2 Main Differences Between Task and Contextual Performance

20 1.Global competition is raising the levels of effort required by employees 2.Globalization increased the need to offer outstanding customer service 3.Many organizations are forming employees into teams 4.It is believed to increase fairness if Contextual Performance is measured along side Task Performance 5.Difficult for supervisors to ignore contextual performance’s effect on overall employee performance Why Should Task and Context Performance be Included in Performance Management Systems

21  All organizational members are given an opportunity to bring the added individual value to the organization regardless of cultural and behavioral differences Why Should Task and Context Performance be Included in Performance Management Systems (Continued)

22  Additional type of behavior associated with Context Performance  Emphasizes expression of constructive challenges with goals to improve  Challenges the status quo  Making innovative suggestion for change and standard procedures modifications Voice Behavior

23 Approaches to Measuring Performance 4.4

24 A performer (individual or team with certain traits) In a given work situation Engages in certain behaviors That produce various results Figure 4.1 Job Performance in Context

25  Circumstances:  No obvious link between behavior and results  When outcomes occur in the distant future choose to evaluate behaviors in short intervals  Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Behavior Approach How It Is Done

26  Focuses on what is produced (sales, number of errors, time spent with customers, and accounts acquired)  Circumstances:  Workers are skilled in the needed behavior: based on knowledge, skill, and results  Behaviors and results are obviously related  Results show consistent improvement over time  There are many ways to do the job Results Approach The Bottom-line

27 Table 4.3 Behavior Approach V. Results Approach When to adopt a behavior approach to measure performance :  The link between behaviors and results are not obvious  Outcomes occur in the distant future  Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control When to adopt a results approach to measure performance:  Workers are skilled in the needed behaviors  Behaviors and results are obviously related  Results show consistent improvement over time  There are many ways to do the job right

28 !!!!Surprise!!!! Most companies measure both Behavior and Results Approaches

29  Ignores  Specific situations  Behaviors  Results  Evaluates  Cognitive ability (not easily trainable)  Personality (not likely to change over time) Trait Approach Emphasizes the Individual

30  Believes in a positive relationship between  Abilities  Personality traits  Desirable work-related behaviors Trait Approach (Continued)

31 1.Traits are not under control of individuals  The traits are fairly stable over one’s lifespan  Not likely to change even with substantial effort  Employees may feel this approach to be unfair 2.Possessing a certain trait does not mean equal desired results  Example: Intelligence + Faulty Equipment = Efficiency Challenges of the Trait Approach

32 Chapter 4 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach Amber Malmstead


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