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Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: OverviewDeterminants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Defining Performance Performance is: Behavior What employees doPrentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Defining Performance Performance is NOT: Results or OutcomesWhat employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Behaviors labeled as Performance are:Evaluative Negative Neutral Positive Multidimensional Many different kinds of behaviors Advance or hinder organizational goals Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Behaviors are Not alwaysObservable Measurable Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Results/Consequences may be usedTo infer behavior As proxy for behavioral measure Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Determinants of PerformanceDeclarative Knowledge X Procedural Knowledge Motivation Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
A. Declarative KnowledgeInformation about Facts Labels Principles Goals Understanding of task requirements Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
B. Procedural KnowledgeKnowing What to do How to do it Skills Cognitive Physical Perceptual Motor Interpersonal Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
C. Motivation Choices Expenditure of effort Level of effortPersistence of effort Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Implications for Addressing Performance ProblemsManagers need information to accurately identify source(s) of performance problems Performance management systems must Measure performance AND Provide information on SOURCE(s) of problems Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Factors Influencing Determinants of Performance:Individual characteristics Procedural knowledge Declarative knowledge Motivation HR practices Work environment Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Performance Dimensions: Types of multi-dimensional behaviors:Task performance Contextual performance Pro-social behaviors Organizational citizenship Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Task performance Activities that transform raw materialshelp with the transformation process Replenishing Distributing Supporting Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Contextual performanceBehaviors that contribute to organization’s effectiveness and provide a good environment in which task performance can occur Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Differences Between Task and Contextual PerformanceTask Performance Varies across jobs Likely to be role prescribed Influenced by Abilities Skills Contextual Performance Fairly similar across jobs Not likely to be role prescribed Influenced by Personality Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Why Include Task & Contextual Performance Dimensions in PM system?Global competition Teamwork Customer service Supervisor views Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Job Performance in ContextThat produce various results A performer (individual or team) Engages in certain behaviors In a given situation TRAIT BEHAVIOR RESULTS Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Approaches to Measuring PerformanceTrait Approach Emphasizes individual traits of employees Behavior Approach Emphasizes how employees do the job Results Approach Emphasizes what employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Trait Approach Emphasis on individual Evaluate stable traitsCognitive abilities Personality Based on relationship between traits & performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Trait Approach (continued)Appropriate if Structural changes planned for organization Disadvantages Improvement not under individual’s control Trait may not lead to Desired behaviors or Desired results Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Behavior Approach Appropriate if Not appropriate ifEmployees take a long time to achieve desired outcomes Link between behaviors and results is not obvious Outcomes occur in the distant future Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Not appropriate if above conditions are not present Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Results Approach Advantages: Less time Lower costData appear objective Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Results Approach (continued)Most appropriate when: Workers skilled in necessary behaviors Behaviors and results obviously related Consistent improvement in results over time Many ways to do the job right Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006
Copyright © 1999 Harcourt Brace & Company Canada, Ltd. Chapter 9 Human Resource Development Falkenberg, Stone, and Meltz Human Resource Management in Canada.
Individual Behavior and process
Appraising and Managing Performance (c) 2007 by Prentice Hall7-1 Chapter 7.
Chapter 4 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach
Chapter 14 Leadership.
Gathering Performance Information: Overview
Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006.
7-1©2005 Prentice Hall 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Chapter 7: Creating a Motivating Work Setting Organizational Behavior 4th Edition JENNIFER.
©2007 Prentice Hall Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations Chapter 5 Motivating Individuals in Their Jobs.
Chapter 5 Motivation Theories
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S © 2005 Prentice Hall.
Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver 9-1 Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Performance Management Skills: Overview Coaching Coaching Styles Coaching.
Organizational Attitudes & Behavior Organizational Attitudes –Job Satisfaction –Organizational Commitment –Job Involvement –Organizational Justice Organizational.
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Performance Management and Employee Development: Overview Personal Developmental.
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Measuring Results and Behaviors: Overview Measuring Results Measuring Behaviors.
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006 Managing Team Performance: Overview Definition and Importance of Teams Types.
Chapter 9 Effective Work Teams Stephen W. Nason HKUST Business School Dr. Stephen Nason Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 92 Why Have Teams Become So Popular?
Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach
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