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Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: Overview

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Presentation on theme: "Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: Overview"— Presentation transcript:

1 Defining Performance and Choosing a Measurement Approach: Overview
Determinants of Performance Performance Dimensions Approaches to Measuring Performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

2 Defining Performance Performance is: Behavior What employees do
Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

3 Defining Performance Performance is NOT: Results or Outcomes
What employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

4 Behaviors labeled as Performance are:
Evaluative Negative Neutral Positive Multidimensional Many different kinds of behaviors Advance or hinder organizational goals Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

5 Behaviors are Not always
Observable Measurable Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

6 Results/Consequences may be used
To infer behavior As proxy for behavioral measure Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

7 Determinants of Performance
Declarative Knowledge X Procedural Knowledge Motivation Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

8 A. Declarative Knowledge
Information about Facts Labels Principles Goals Understanding of task requirements Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

9 B. Procedural Knowledge
Knowing What to do How to do it Skills Cognitive Physical Perceptual Motor Interpersonal Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

10 C. Motivation Choices Expenditure of effort Level of effort
Persistence of effort Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

11 Implications for Addressing Performance Problems
Managers need information to accurately identify source(s) of performance problems Performance management systems must Measure performance AND Provide information on SOURCE(s) of problems Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

12 Factors Influencing Determinants of Performance:
Individual characteristics Procedural knowledge Declarative knowledge Motivation HR practices Work environment Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

13 Performance Dimensions: Types of multi-dimensional behaviors:
Task performance Contextual performance Pro-social behaviors Organizational citizenship Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

14 Task performance Activities that transform raw materials
help with the transformation process Replenishing Distributing Supporting Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

15 Contextual performance
Behaviors that contribute to organization’s effectiveness and provide a good environment in which task performance can occur Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

16 Differences Between Task and Contextual Performance
Task Performance Varies across jobs Likely to be role prescribed Influenced by Abilities Skills Contextual Performance Fairly similar across jobs Not likely to be role prescribed Influenced by Personality Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

17 Why Include Task & Contextual Performance Dimensions in PM system?
Global competition Teamwork Customer service Supervisor views Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

18 Job Performance in Context
That produce various results A performer (individual or team) Engages in certain behaviors In a given situation TRAIT BEHAVIOR RESULTS Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

19 Approaches to Measuring Performance
Trait Approach Emphasizes individual traits of employees Behavior Approach Emphasizes how employees do the job Results Approach Emphasizes what employees produce Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

20 Trait Approach Emphasis on individual Evaluate stable traits
Cognitive abilities Personality Based on relationship between traits & performance Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

21 Trait Approach (continued)
Appropriate if Structural changes planned for organization Disadvantages Improvement not under individual’s control Trait may not lead to Desired behaviors or Desired results Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

22 Behavior Approach Appropriate if Not appropriate if
Employees take a long time to achieve desired outcomes Link between behaviors and results is not obvious Outcomes occur in the distant future Poor results are due to causes beyond the performer’s control Not appropriate if above conditions are not present Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

23 Results Approach Advantages: Less time Lower cost
Data appear objective Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

24 Results Approach (continued)
Most appropriate when: Workers skilled in necessary behaviors Behaviors and results obviously related Consistent improvement in results over time Many ways to do the job right Prentice Hall, Inc. © 2006

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