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Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler. „The small difference“ Genetically basics Karyotype Karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs HormoneHormones.

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Presentation on theme: "Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler. „The small difference“ Genetically basics Karyotype Karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs HormoneHormones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler

2 „The small difference“ Genetically basics Karyotype Karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs HormoneHormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

3 Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler „The small difference“ Genetically basics Karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs Hormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

4 Bildquelle: Klett CD-Rom Mediothek Menschenkunde 4 sterile Taking of blood samples from the arm vein Nutrient solution Culture of leucocytes Stimulation of mitosis (37°C) Process of making a cell culture

5 Bildquellen: Klett CD-Rom Mediothek Menschenkunde 4, Stopping the mitosis with colchicine Prepare the chromosomes Fixation and centrifugation Adding of distilled water Centrifuged leucocytes

6 Bildquelle: Klett CD-Rom Mediothek Menschenkunde 4 Placing a drop on a microscope slide Microscopy Counting and photographing Human chromosomes (enlarged 700 times)

7 Bildquelle: Klett CD-Rom Mediothek Menschenkunde 4 Centromere region chromatids karyotype Karyotype

8 Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler Karyotype Organize chromosomes in a karyotype: CLICK CLICK Now try it yourself: CLICK CLICK

9 XXXY XXXY 22 XXX YYY 44 Bildquelle: Klett CD-Rom Mediothek Menschenkunde 4 Sex chromosomes diploid: Sex chromosomes haploid: Autosomes: Parents: Gametes: Offspring: or Drag & drop exercise (in PPT Normalansicht) Where do they fit?

10 X- & Y-Chromosome Bildquelle:

11 „The small difference“ Genetically basics karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs Hormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

12 Reproductive organs Click on the icons!

13 „The small difference“ Genetically basics karyotype Anatomy female & malePuberty Reproductive organs Hormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

14 Development of reproductive organs  Female fertility  Puberty Click on the button and see the video (with earphones) !

15 Exercises 1.Bearbeite den deutschsprachigen Lückentext zum eben gesehen Film: 2.View the animation from the BBC page about puberty: y/body/interactives/lifecycle/teenagers/ y/body/interactives/lifecycle/teenagers/

16 „The small difference“ Genetically basics karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs Hormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

17  Sperms Samenzellen Sperm  Development needs about 20 days  they consist of a head (holds the genetic material), a midpiece (with energy for moving) and a tail (for movement)  Testis/Testes Hoden TestisTestes  Situated in the scrotum (Hodensack)scrotum  is divided in many separated parts, where very small tubes (about 1000/testis) are situated.  About 300 million sperm cells are produced per day. (!)  Produces the male sex hormone (Testosterone) (which are also produced in a minor quantity in man and woman in the cortex of suprarenal gland)Testosterone Bildquelle:

18  Prostate gland Vorsteherdrüse/Prostata Prostategland  Produces another secret (milky)  at sexual excitement the muscles contract and close the urethra (that prevents the simultaneous exit of sperms and urine)  Epididymis Nebenhoden Epididymis  Sperms are stored and made resistant against outer impact here starts the  Vas deferens Samenleiter Vas deferens  2 of them  about 50 cm long and ducts into the Bildquelle:  Seminal vesicle Samenblase/Bläschendrüse Seminalvesicle  Secretes an alkaline fluid, which initiates the movement of the sperms

19  Penis Glied Penis it contains three erectile tissues, which fill up with arterial blood at sexual excitement; especially the glans penis (thickened end part) contains many axons and is therefore very sensitive; the foreskin acts as a protection  Urethra Harnröhre Urethra is mainly a duct for urine and sperm of the man Bildquelle:

20 Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler What does it mean? (connect pairs with a line) Erektion Ejakulation Pollution Kastration Eunuch Sterilisation Libido Potenz Samenerguss Durchtrennung der Samenleiter (bzw. Eileiter) Durch Entfernung der Hoden vor der Pubertät Versteifung des Glieds Entfernung der Hoden sexuelles Verlangen Fähigkeit zum Geschlechtsverkehr nächtlicher Samenerguss

21 Sperm & egg cell SemenSemen consists predominantly of secretion of three glands and certainly sperm cells. The amount of sperms determine the chance of pregnancy. The egg cell or ovum is the biggest cell in the human body (0,2 mm, visible to the naked eye). Sperms and egg cells are also called gametes. gamete Bildquelle:

22  the part which reaches into the vagina is called the cervix (Muttermund), mucus inside helps as protection against germscervix  Vagina Scheide Vagina  Muscular tube, with mucous membrane inside  Hymen Jungfernhäutchen closes the opening of the vagina (function: protection) Hymen  Fallopian tube Eileiter Fallopian tube  Receive egg cells after ovulation  Are ducts which connect the ovaries with the uterus (only some mm in diameter)  Sometimes scarred over  possibility of tubal pregnancy (Eileiterschwangerschaft)  If both tubes are blocked only in vitro fertilization is possible (test-tube baby)  Uterus Gebärmutter Uterus  Size of an hen's egg  Wall made of smooth muscles (are active at labor (Wehen) and menstruation)  Layed out with mucous membrane, which dimension varies within one month Bildquelle:

23 OVARIES  Eierstock (Ovary)Ovary  erzeugen Östrogene (estrogen) und Gestagene (progesterone) und Eizellenprogesterone  bei der Geburt enthalten sie unreife Eizellen, ab der Pubertät reift davon eines pro Monat heran (Meiosis)Meiosis  Reifung erfolgt im Follikel (follicle) Bläschen mit Flüssigkeit)follicle)  dieser bildet Follikelhormone (Östrogene) und platzt beim Eisprung, so dass die Eizelle in den Eileiter gespült wird (Bauchhöhlenschwangerschaft ist möglich!)  Rest des Follikels wird zum Gelbkörper (corpus luteum), der Progesteron erzeugtcorpus luteum  die weiblichen Geschlechtshormone haben die Aufgabe, die Gebärmutterschleim-haut auf ein eventuell befruchtetes Ei vorzubereiten wird die Eizelle...  befruchtet, nistet sie sich ein; der Gelbkörper bleibt bis zum 4. Monat erhalten, danach bildet die Plazenta die Gestagene (Schleimhauterhalt!)  nicht befruchtet, stirbt sie ab, der Gelbkörper bildet sich nach 14 Tagen zurück; es kommt zur Regelblutung, eine neue Eizelle reift heran Bildquelle:

24 Female fertility  Female fertility  Menstruation & Conception

25  Labia majora, Labia minora and clitoris Labia majoraLabia minoraclitoris  Contain (like the penis) erectile tissues, which is filled up with blood during sexual excitement; the flow up of the blood over veins (Venen) is prevented  The clitoris is rich of nerve cells and therefore very sensitive, touching can lead to orgasm  Glands (Bartholinische Drüsen) at the base of the labia minora secrete at sexual excitement a fluid which keeps the vagina moist and decreases friction Bildquelle:

26 „The small difference“ Genetically basics karyotype Anatomy female & male Puberty Reproductive organs Hormones and sex / Menstrual cycle

27 „The cycle starts in the brain“ Quelle: HORMONES regulate the menstrual cycle: Pituitary gland

28 Hormonal control system  Hormones  Hormonal control system

29 FSH (=follicle-stimulating hormone) Regulates the growing of the follicle in the ovary produces LH (=luteinizing hormone) LH and FSH together cause ovulation The rest of the follicle develops to the corpus luteum Estrogen - suppresses FSH - release + stimulates LH - release Progesterone Lining of the uterus is stimulated to grow and to get thicker - suppresses FSH & LH - release Bildquelle: Corpus luteum egg cell Ovulation

30 Hormones produced by the pituitary Hormones produced by the ovaries Hormones of the menstrual cycle Bildquelle:

31 2 possibilities: 1)The egg cell is not fertilized: corpus luteum withers and the uterine lining is shedding. Menstrual bleeding begins and with it the next cycle 2) The egg cell is not fertilized: the uterine lining starts to release gonadotropin  so the corpus luteum remains and produces further on progesterone  Pregnancy strip tests look for the presence of the hormone gonadotropin in human urine - which is later on produced by the placenta.

32 Hormonal contraceptives contain sex hormones which act in a similar way to the estrogens and progesterone produced by the body and pretend a pregnancy. So the production of FSH and LH in the pituitary are suppressed. Vaginal-ring Implanon The pill Bildquellen: Scheiden Ring: Pille und Implanon aus: (Medicine worldwide)

33 Try to fill in the missing words on the next transparencies:

34 Regulates the growing of the follicle in the ovary produces LH and FSH together cause ovulation The rest of the follicle develops to the corpus luteum - suppresses FSH - release + stimulates LH - release Lining of the uterus is stimulated to grow and to get thicker - suppresses FSH & LH - release Bildquelle: Corpus luteum egg cell Ovulation

35 FSH (=follicle-stimulating hormone) Regulates the growing of the follicle in the ovary produces LH (=luteinizing hormone) LH and FSH together cause ovulation The rest of the follicle develops to the corpus luteum Estrogen - suppresses - release + stimulates - release Progesterone Lining of the uterus is stimulated to grow and to get thicker - suppresses & - release Bildquelle: Corpus luteum egg cell Ovulation

36 Kunnert, Hatzinger, Braun, Pichler Weitere Quellen Bildquelle Hintergrundbild: Timm, Michael: „ Gesundheit in Frage und Antwort “, Midena- Verlag, Augsburg 1997 de Bernabe, Dr. E. G., „ Sch ü lerwissen aktuell “, Tosa- Verlag, Wien 1998 Brenner, Klaus- Ulrich: „ Der K ö rper des Menschen “, Weltbild- Verlag, Augsburg 1996 „ Atlas der Anatomie “, Buch und Zeit Verlagsgesellschaft, K ö ln 1990


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