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JESSICA ROJAS MAHA KAZMI Chapter 11 Teacher Effectiveness.

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1 JESSICA ROJAS MAHA KAZMI Chapter 11 Teacher Effectiveness

2 Learning Time - Many teachers all over the country use their classroom time very differently -Research has demonstrated that in a study conducted, one teacher spends 68 minutes a day teaching reading while another spends 137 minutes teaching the same subject. Time spent on subjects being taught varies depending upon the teacher. -Students that spend more time pursuing academic content achieve more. -Allocated time: Time a teacher schedules for a subject -More time spent on a subject= higher the student achievement -Engaged time: part of allocated time in which student are actively involved in subject -Academic learning time: engaged time with high success rate

3 Classroom Management Good classroom management requires constant monitoring of student behavior Examples of classroom management strategies -Questioning technique “group altering” -Always look around classroom to make sure children are doing what is required of them. -Being able to handle interruptions/behavior problems while simultaneously continuing lesson. (Ability to do several things at once: multitasking) -Manage transition from activity or lesson to the next smoothly and effectively.

4 Videos of Effective Teaching Strategies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2EdWgsTUhmI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PahVp7p3XHg

5 More good classroom management techniques Direct Instruction: The teacher outlines what he and the students will be doing this period. He may set time limits for some tasks. Monitoring : constantly circulate classroom premises. Get up and get around the room. While your students are working, make the rounds. Check on their progress. Positive Discipline: Refer to your rules as expectations. Let your students know this is how you expect them to behave in your classroom. Make sure to praise children when they do something correct, it will reinforce good behavior. Choice-provide options for children so they feel like they have a sense of control Responsibilities-give them responsible tasks sp they feel a sense of empowerement Kindness-model instances of kindness Voice-Hear students words and feelings, allow them to express themselves

6 Preventing Problems in classroom environment Express rules expected from children clearly, make sure they understand them and what is required of them. Make sure rules aren't to many, fair and reasonable and appropriate for student maturation. This would lower the amount of student misbehavior that occurs in the classroom. Move beyond punishment and use consequences to solve behavior issues. Ex: If a student isn't paying attention in class, instead of punishing him move the students desk closer to the teachers, pair him up with a student that models good behavior, or even work with the student to demonstrate ways to stay on task.

7 Models of classroom management AdvocateMain FocusBelief System Lee and Marlene CarterAssertive DisciplineA structured, systematic approach designed to assist educators in running an organized, teacher- in-charge classroom environment. The teacher controls their classroom in a firm but positive manner. The teachers must establish rules and directions that clearly define the limits of acceptable and unacceptable student behavior Richard Curwin and Allen MendlerDiscipline with DignityStudents should always be treated with dignity even when they misbehave Barbara ColorosoDeveloping inner control and disciplineStudents need to take responsibility of their actions in order to develop and mature. Rudolf DreikersCollaborative decision making and belongingIdentify motivation behind students misbehavior and redirect behavior in a positive way. Haim GinottCommunicationsSpeak to students as you want to be spoken to. Have good communication with children. Model desirable behavior and maintain your calm as a teacher. William GlasserStudent SatisfactionTeacher plans meaningful work for students and holds them to high standards. Students feel a part of the school, have fun and become independent. Thomas GordonDiscipline as controlStudents are involved in making rules about classroom life and procedures.

8 Cont…. AdvocateMain FocusBelief system Jacob KouinEngagement and SupervisionStudent misbehavior is reduced by engaging lessons and teachers watchful monitoring Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg Group DynamicGroup dynamic, insights, and peer influence is used to control misbehavior. When misbehavior occurs, appropriate consequences follow B.F. SkinnerBehavior modificationDesire behaviors are encouraged immediately by awarding positive reinforcement. Undesirable behaviors are ignored

9 Pedagogical Cycle 1. Structure: Provides information, direction, and introduces topics. 2.Question: Teacher asks questions 3. Respond: Student answers the question, or tries to 4. React: Teacher reacts to student answers and provides feedback. -When teachers enhance the cycle, student achievement is increased.

10 Reactions It was found that teachers generally use four types of reactions 1. Praise: Positive comments about student work. Ex. “Good job!” 2. Acceptance: Responding to a student acknowledging that their answers are acceptable. Ex “Okay; Uh-huh” 3.Remediation: comments that encourage students to respond more accurately or encourage them to think more clearly and/or more creatively. Ex. “Try again” “Check your addition” 4. Criticism: A clear statement that an answer is inaccurate or a behavior is inappropriate. This category includes harsh criticism. Ex. “This is a terrible paper!” -Sadkers study found that acceptance was the most frequent response teacher’s use, accounting for more than half of all teacher reactions from grade school to graduate school. -The most infrequently used reaction is praise, it made up only 11 percent of reactions. -The rarest response was criticism, it accounted for only 5 percent of interaction.

11 Positive Feedback Students need to know when they are performing well, and they also need to know when their efforts are inadequate or incorrect. If a student does not have information on their weak areas, it’ll be difficult for them to improve Tips for effective feedback: -Constructive feedback -Providing critical comments that focus on student performance and are not on a personal nature -Providing feedback that is a clear blueprint for improvement -Providing constructive feedback that recognizes when students have made improvements in their performance. -Variety in process and content -Variety can enhance teaching effectiveness and student achievement Ex. Disscussions, lecutres, field trips, films, etc. Teachers must consider individual students and tailor activities according to their interests, learning styles, and abilities. Technology as a Tool for Effective Teaching Educators can use technology to: -motivate students through multimedia materials that capture their interests -increase basic skills in math, reading, writing and as well in other content areas through sample quizzes, drill-and practice, etc. -promote higher-order thinking and increased content understanding by introducing simulations, problem-based learning, collaborative work, etc. -Strengthen student learning by adding resources, such as SMART boards.

12 Models for Effective Instruction Direct teaching: emphasizes the important of a structured lesson in which presentation of new information is followed by student practice and teacher feedback. -Daily review -Anticipatory set : also known as a grabber; builds bridge from previous knowledge to new information -New material -Guided practice -specific feedback -independent practice -weekly and monthly reviews Best known supporters of direct teaching was Madeline Hunter, her ideas on teaching have become the foundation for writing lesson plans. Cooperative Learning: students work together to gain new understandings on a topic. Cooperative learning groups should be heterogeneous and at least in the beginning only consist of two to six members. Research shows that cooperation learning promotes both intellectual and emotional growth. Students make high achievement gains. They have higher self-esteem and greater motivation to learn. Understanding and cooperation among students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds are enhanced. Mastery Learning: An educational practice in which an individual demonstrates mastery of one task before moving on to the next. Problem-Based Learning: An approach that builds a curriculum around intriguing real-life problems and asks students to work cooperatively to develop and demonstrate their solutions. Differentiated Instruction: An approach to teaching in which instructional activities are organized in response to individual learning differences. Teachers are asked to carefully consider each student’s needs, learning style, life experience, and readiness to learn.

13 Few more thoughts on Effective Teaching -Learning communities: the creation of more personal collaboration between teachers and students to promote similar academic goals and values. -Looping: the practice of teaching the same class for several years, over two or even more grades. The purpose is to build stronger teacher-student connections. -Block scheduling: The use of longer “blocks” of time to schedule classes, resulting in fewer but longer periods given to each subject. It is designed to promote greater in-depth study -Reflective teachers: Thoughtfully analyzing one’s own teaching practices and classroom

14 Citations Churchward, B. (2009, January 1). 11 Techniques for Better Classroom Discipline. Retrieved November 2, 2014, from Sadker, D., & Zittleman, K. (2013). Chapter 11: Teacher Effectiveness. In Teachers, schools, and society (10th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.


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