Presentation on theme: "Current issues in School Leadership & Management in Rwanda Focus on Teacher Development and Motivation 21-22 November 2013 Umubano Hotel National Symposium."— Presentation transcript:
Current issues in School Leadership & Management in Rwanda Focus on Teacher Development and Motivation 21-22 November 2013 Umubano Hotel National Symposium on School Leadership Emmanuel Muvunyi, Rwanda Education Board
American Educational Research Association “Scratch the surface of an excellent school and you are likely to find an excellent principal. Peer into a failing school and you will find weak leadership” Leadership has significant effects on student learning, second only to the effects of the quality of Curriculum and teachers’ instruction Leithwood K., and Riehl, C., (2003)
This presentation has 3 parts Introduction Implications of recent Education (2003 – 2013) Policy to School L&M (needs, opportunities and challenges) Preliminary findings from a study that explores teachers' perceptions of the changes in their motivation to teach during 2008-13
The presenter VVOB/MINEDUC School Management steering committee (2010-2011) Visit to Belgium and UK in 2011 - Exploring ways and partnerships to strengthen School leadership in Rwandan education system Current responsibilities as head of Examination and Accreditation, REB Drawing from my on-going study on changes in teacher motivation (2008-13)
Theoretical categorization of Factors determining teachers’ motivation (Frase, 1992) Extrinsic motivation Working conditions [class size, teaching load, student discipline, teaching materials] Quality of School management and professional support Teacher deployment & staffing Basic physiological needs/living conditions [money, status, security] Intrinsic motivation Opportunities for professional development Occupational status and vocational commitment Individual characteristics and professional organisations and teacher conduct WORK CONTEXT: Teaching environment WORK CONTENT: Teaching itself
National aspirations (Vision 2020, EDPRS, ESSP etc) and International commitments (MDGs, EFA etc) Set ambitious standards for Learning for all children (Access) and attaining the desired learning outcomes Challenges paused by a complex learning environment (history, resource constraints, varying policy and curriculum requirements, diversity of student characteristics, etc All pause challenges to school leaders
Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Access to EducationEmerging School L&M needs Large class size High teaching load 1 head teacher for 9YBE and 12YBE Community involvement in school affairs Large numbers of untrained teachers – limited pedagogical skills Insufficient learning materials UPE (2003), extended to 9YBE (2009) and 12YBE (2012) Community involvement in school Double shifting Teacher specialisation Realignment of the curriculum and course content Teacher training Decentralisation of procurement and delivery of learning materials
Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Access to EducationSchool L&M needs Learners move distances to schools Teachers acquired professional training UPE (2003), 9YBE (2009), 12YBE (2012) Community involvement in schools Double shifting Teacher specialisation Realignment of the curriculum and course content Teacher training Decentralisation of procurement and delivery of learning materials
Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007 TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses challenges facing teacher education and management Pre 1998 supply of teachers was not coherently done No TTIs, no focus on teacher training Since 1998, teachers are receiving pre-service training through the 12 PTCs, 2CoE, and UR (KIE)
Teachers’ management and development structures and policies National Teacher Registration System (NTRS) the cornerstone of teacher management at central and decentralized levels (School, Sector, District) National Teacher Licensing System (NTLS) provide motivation, quality assurance for teachers and create a teaching profession and educational leadership career pathway National Teacher Code of Conduct (NTCC) govern the professional ethics of teachers Terms and Conditions of Services (TACOS) enable teacher contracts to be drawn up and signed National Teacher Professional Standards (NTPS) enable the setting up of classroom competencies expected of teachers Teacher Appraisal and Evaluation System (TAES) facilitate on-going assessment of teacher performance
Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M Teacher Development and Management (TDM) policy 2007 TDM policy provides for a substantial reform and addresses challenges facing teacher education and management Establishment of the Teachers’ Savings and Credit Cooperative (SACCO) which is an incentive for teacher motivation and retention Through the loans, teachers are improving their economic condition
Implications of Education recent Policy reforms to School L&M English as a Language of Learning (LoL) – Face to Face 2009- 2011 – School Based Mentoring 2012 Emerging School L&M needs Large numbers of teachers with low English language skills Ensure learners achieve the Learning objectives
About the study Explores the trend of teacher motivation in Rwanda over 5 years (2008 -13) Study by Bennell et al. (2008), findings used as a baseline for the current study Mixed methodology approach combining QUAL and QUANT methods Survey administered with sub-sample of 248 teacher (550 Bennel study) Purpose is to inquire about teachers’ perceptions on the impact of the policy changes that took place during the last 5 years, in particular with respect to how motivated they have been and seek to understand if motivations are linked to policy changes 2 intertwined RQs: (1) what are the main incentives introduced by the government of Rwanda between 2008 and 2013 to improve teachers' motivations, and what processes were followed? (2) In the opinion of teachers, how is that these incentives have changed, or not, teachers' motivations to perform their jobs? Teacher motivation and incentives in Rwanda: An exploration into teachers' perceptions of the changes in their motivation to teach during 2008-13
Administrators of your school (HTs, Dep. HTs and School management committees) show commitment and competence to lead the school well
The school management promotes good relationship between the various categories of teachers at your school (Including: Veteran teachers, NQTs, Volunteers and English language SBMs)
Do you consider the way teachers at your school are managed & supported as a source of your motivation to teach?
The ways in which teacher inspection, promotions and transfers are done at my school are sources of my motivation to teach
During 2008-13, teachers in your school were respected by the parents and community around the school
Are you a member of Umwalimu SACCO teachers' cooperative?
Members of Umwalimu SACCO teachers' cooperative who benefitted from the teachers loans (2008-13)
What is the impact of student behaviour to your motivation to teach during 2008-13?
Unfinished business Institutionalization of the School L&M programme Teaching profession and educational leadership career pathway – PRESET – Centre at the Teacher Training – INSET - School based approach How to create effective school leaders?