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High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 1 PARTICULAR ISSUES OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN GHANA Jophus Anamuah-Mensah, Vice Chancellor University of Education, Winneba,

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Presentation on theme: "High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 1 PARTICULAR ISSUES OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN GHANA Jophus Anamuah-Mensah, Vice Chancellor University of Education, Winneba,"— Presentation transcript:

1 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 1 PARTICULAR ISSUES OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN GHANA Jophus Anamuah-Mensah, Vice Chancellor University of Education, Winneba, Ghana & Margaret Benneh, Director, Teacher Education, GES Ghana

2 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 2

3 3 Focus of Presentation  Status and assessment of teachers  Recruitment  Type of training  Teacher training framework

4 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 4 Basic school statistics ( ) Type of school No.of Schs. Enrol% FNo. Teachers % trained GERPTR KG6, , , Primary14,619 2, , JSS7, , ,

5 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 5 Status  Teachers salary constitute 66% of public payroll  There are two strong teachers’ unions- GNAT and NAGRAT  Teachers have a low self-esteem and are frustrated  TVET teachers have better non-teaching job opportunities in industry

6 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 6 Status  Teacher education has unattractive social status, takes a longer time (7+ yrs; now5+ yrs) to get a first degree and is not considered as tertiary education.  Teaching suffers from ‘chronic prestige deprivation’, leading to inability to attract best candidate into TTCs  Flows out from the teaching service - high rate of teachers leaving the service due to poor conditions of service.

7 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 7 Assessment of teachers  Assessment at end of pre-service- cert A, cert in Educ., Diploma, Bed or PGCE  No formal assessment after employment  Formal Appraisal for elevation to next grade or headship  Informal assessment by public on the basis of their pupils’ performance in external exams  MOES proposal to license and give teaching certificates

8 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 8 Strategy to improve teaching profession  Best Teacher and Best school Award Scheme  Institutionalization of INSET for teachers  Support for teachers on DE programmes  Making salaries and conditions of service comparable to other professions  Networking among teachers to facilitate information sharing and collegial support  Teacher involvement in policy making bodies

9 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 9 Strategy II Government’s Incentive for teachers  Provision of bicycles, motor bikes and housing for teachers in deprived areas  accelerated promotion for teachers in such deprived areas  Special quota for study leave with pay (to be implemented)  The positions of Head of school and Departments should have salaries and other attractive conditions attached (new proposal)

10 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 10 Challenges  Institutionalization of peer review and continuous monitoring of teachers  Implementation of incentive packages for teachers, especially those in deprived areas  Implementation of teacher networking  Institutionalization of INSET

11 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 11 Recruitment In general recruitment should be based on: Growth demand – demographic changes and increasing enrolment Policy-driven demand – changes in targets such as P/T ratio or curriculum emphasis Replacement demand – replacement of teachers who leave the service  However, it is affected by  Limiting capacities of existing TTCs  Entry level qualification

12 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 12 Vacancy situation  A total of 652 primary schools with one or no teacher (GES 2001)  Before 2001, over 10,000 teachers left their classrooms annually to pursue further studies with pay; this has reduced to about 5000; However, TTCs produce only about 8,500 Certificate A teachers annually;  Flight from basic to SSS teaching after upgrading  Dearth of science, Maths, TVET and English teachers * Basic education needs 15,000 teachers annually

13 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 13 Strategies for quality training despite increasing teacher numbers  Use of non-conventional methods: Distance learning using print Use of e-learning School-based training with no institutional residence School-based training with residence

14 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 14 Challenge To deploy e-learning in teacher training To institute recruitment procedures that will achieve demand-driven teacher education

15 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 15 Type of training  Teacher training has a national focus although colleges are located in all regions  Teacher training utilizes the generalist and subject-training approaches –Generalist - P1-6 –Specialist - JSS & SSS  Distance learning/Sandwich  School attachment/internship

16 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 16 Pathways to teacher education in Ghana Pathways of teacher education locationImplementi ng agencies durationstructuremodequalification Pre-service or initial teacher education 38 TTCsGES/TED3yrsIN-IN-OUTTraditional/DE sch attachment Certificate A; Now diploma Universityuniversity4yrs 1yr IN-IN-IN-OUT Sandwich/Full time Traditional Bed PGDE/ Cert in Education Induction?Schools?GES?NA*NA Teaching license? In-service upgrading UEW 4yrsIN-IN-IN-OUTTraditional/DEDiploma/BEd In-service upgrading UCC 4 yrs 3yrs IN-IN-IN-IN 6wk practicum Out-out-out Traditional DE/Sandwich Bed Diploma In-service cluster School clusterGESvariable traditionalNA/ certificate of attendance In-service- lifelong individual lifelongvariable NA

17 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 17 Typology of Teacher Education programmes

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19 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 19 Teacher training framework Teacher Education Division of GES (policy implementation) 38 Teacher Training Colleges (producing diploma teachers for basic schools) Permanent forum of Teacher Education with other stakeholders, GNAT Assessment, Certification Curriculum Development and Review Pre-service Training and INSET for Basic, SSS and TVET institutions Faculty of Education University of Cape Coast University of Education, Winneba

20 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 20 Role of teacher educators  Guide the development of trainees in acquisition of skills and knowledge  Conduct research into teaching and teacher edu  Act as models of best practice  Implementation of policies on teacher educ  Involvement in policy formulation/analysis  Involved in curriculum reforms  Resource persons at INSET for teachers

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22 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 22 Table : Recurrent Public Expenditure Per Student (constant 1996 US$ , US$1=c1637) Level/Type of Education primary (78.8)* JSS (68.8) SSS (57.1) vocational/tech nical (49.8) teacher education (56.2) polytechnic (37.6) university (35.6) Source: Adapted from data in MOE, 1999/2002: Appendix 4.1; World Bank 1998: 16 *financing gap for 2001 Unit cost of Teacher educ Is higher than All levels except University Support to Teacher educ declined in 2001

23 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 23 Status and factual situation of teacher training  Only 2.4% of the Ministry of Education’s budget is allotted to teacher education  Annually the government spends billion cedis (about 6 million US dollars) on study leave with pay.  Courses of study at the TTCs are not aligned to those offered in the universities TTC profile:  Student enrolment-25,121  Female % %  Annual output- 8,500  Teaching staff - 1,457  % female staff %  % 2nd degree holders- 9.8% Universities produce 4000 teachers DE has about 16,000 students

24 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 24 Methodological and technical support for teacher training  IN-IN-IN-OUT programme for UEW  IN-IN-OUT programme for TTCs  DE modules used during OUT segment of TTC programme  Provision of DVDs on selected teachers for school-based INSET on mentoring  Use of DE for upgrading teachers  Use of sandwich for Cert A teachers within HEI catchment area

25 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 25 Methodological and technical support for teacher training II  Introduction of ICT in all TTCs  National Teaching Council to license and give certificates to all teachers, enforce policy on ethical and professional standards and advise MOES

26 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 26 The IN-IN-OUT programme 1 st year IN 2 nd year IN 3 rd year OUT COLLEGE COMMUNITY SCHOOL Mentoring Use of DE modules College supervision Awards Diploma in Education Produces generalist teacher Face-to-face in College Entry qualification is the same as that for university Students Sponsored by District Assemblies

27 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 27 UTTDBE College during vacation College during vacation College during vacation FREE DE MODULES OUT IN SCHOOL OUT IN SCHOOL OUT IN SCHOOL OUT? IN SCHOOL Student sponsorship by district assemblies and NGOs Mentoring in school Use of district support teams 4-year duration Diploma certificate Produces generalist teachers Stay in Stay in Stay in

28 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 28 The Internship at UEW  Linking professional development to the life & culture of schools;  School teacher as legitimate participant in professional development of the intern;  Establish formal collaboration between university and schools; Formation of Professional development School  Use the cognitive apprenticeship model;Introduction of Mentoring system;  Action research as indispensable tool for reflection on ‘native theories’ and professional growth of teachers;  Teacher as reflective decision maker;  Development of teaching philosophy;  Development of Portfolio as a tool for appraisal and reflection  Involvement in community activities; Use of DE modules

29 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 29 Regional and international cooperation  Carnegie Cooperation support to UEW for student internship and improvement in DE  COL assistance in developing De modules for TVET  Literacy programme for uncertified teachers through unesco  ECOWAS initiative for teacher training through DE  UNESCO capacity building for teacher training colleges- 552/GHA/1000 project

30 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 30 … in response to challenges

31 High Level Expert Mtg on unesco TTI 31 THANK YOU


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