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Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Teaching for Academic Learning: EDUC 202 William M. Bauer, Professor Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Teaching for Academic Learning: EDUC 202 William M. Bauer, Professor Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Teaching for Academic Learning: EDUC 202 William M. Bauer, Professor Chapter 12

3 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to a human soul. Joseph Addison

4 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon It is not the hours you put in as a teacher that count. It is the teaching you put into those hours.

5 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Overview The First Step: Planning Formats for Teaching: Teacher Directed Focus on the Teacher Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms Focus on the Subject: Reading Mathematics Science

6 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Concept Map for Chapter 13 Formats for Teaching: Teacher Directed Focus on the Teacher The First Step: Planning Teaching for Learning Effective Teaching In Inclusive Classrooms Focus on the Subject

7 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon The First Step: Planning Plan what students will learn Levels of planning Reduces uncertainty No single recommended model

8 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Objectives for Learning Clear description What students are intended to learn

9 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Mager’s Three Part System: Specific Objectives Conditions Behavior Performance criteria

10 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Examples: Mager Given a worksheet of 100 multiplication problems, the students will write the correct answers for 80% of the problems. Given 10 sentences, the students will identify the subjects and verbs with 90% accuracy. See Woolfolk, Figure 13.1, p. 477.

11 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Gronlund: Start General State objective first in general terms Clarify by listing sample behaviors

12 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Examples: Gronlund Students will understand aesthetics in visual and performing arts. Recognize beauty in Impressionistic paintings Enjoy scenes from the ballet ‘The Marriage of Figaro’ See Woolfolk, Table 13.1, p. 477.

13 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Benefits of Objectives Promote student learning Aid organization of material Help focus students’ attention Aid assessment & evaluation Required by many school districts

14 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Guidelines for Writing Objectives Avoid “word magic” Match learning activities to objectives Match assessments to objectives See Woolfolk, ‘Guidelines’, p. 478

15 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Bloom’s Taxonomies of Objectives Cognitive Affective Psychomotor

16 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy Evaluation Synthesis (Creating) Analysis Application Comprehension (Understanding) Knowledge (Remembering)

17 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Bloom’s Revised Cognitive Taxonomy for 2001 Creating Evaluation Analysis Application Understanding Remembering

18 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon A Revised Taxonomy in the Cognitive Domain The Cognitive Process Dimension Knowledge Dimension RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreate Factual Knowledge Procedural Metacognitive See Table 13.2, p. 480, Woolfolk Textbook.

19 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Affective Domain Characterization Organization Valuing Responding Receiving

20 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Psychomotor Domain Non-discursive communication Skilled movements Physical abilities Perceptual abilities Fundamental movements Reflexes

21 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Applications of Bloom Writing objectives Writing test questions Planning assignments Discussion questions Task analysis

22 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Planning from a Constructivist Perspective Shared/negotiated with students Teacher and students together decide content, activities, approaches Teacher supplies overarching goals – the “big ideas” See Woolfolk, example, p. 482.

23 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Topic: Immigrants to the U.S. Issues Loneliness Language Culture Pluralism Nativism, Discrimination Citizenship, Foreign Policy Legislation of Exclusion and Limitation Political Leaders Cultural Leaders Colonizers as Immigrants from Asia Immigrants to the U. S. Waves of European Immigrants Relation to foods, music, aesthetic expression, and religious practice Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean Relation to economy Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

24 Integrated and Thematic Plans Issues, concepts, big ideas are woven together with content knowledge and skills Include perspectives from various disciplines Authentic assessments often better for this kind of teaching

25 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Formats for Teaching: Teacher Directed Lecturing & Explaining Large amount of material Large group instruction Less time to present Good for Introducing new material Giving background Motivating students for self-learning Helping students learn to listen

26 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Seatwork & Homework Seatwork often overused Seatwork is supervised practice Homework linked with higher grades Must be meaningful & relevant Consider authentic tasks See ‘Family & Community Partnerships’, Woolfolk, p. 489.

27 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Recitation & Questioning Teacher questions, students answer Structure Solicitation or questioning Reaction Kinds of questions Convergent Divergent Match questions to students

28 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Questioning Wait time Rephrasing questions Levels of questions (Bloom) Calling on students

29 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Reacting to Student Responses Correct answer Partially correct answer Corrective feedback Silly or careless answers Yes, Horaldo, E does = mc 2. However, in this instance…..

30 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Group Discussion Similar to instructional conversation (See chapter 9, p. 346) Teacher as facilitator Use of probing – responding to a question with a question Useful for understanding complex concepts Can be unpredictable! See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 493

31 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Focus on the Teacher

32 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Characteristics of Effective Teachers Knowledge Organization and clarity Warmth See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 497

33 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon The Teacher in Teacher- Centered Instruction Direct instruction / explicit teaching / active teaching Focus on basic skills Direct instruction Rosenshine’s Six Teaching Functions Hunter’s Mastery Teaching Program

34 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Rosenshine’s Six Teaching Functions  Review & check previous day’s work.  Present new material.  Provide guided practice.  Give feedback and correctives.  Provide independent practice.  Review weekly and monthly.

35 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Hunter’s Mastery Teaching Program Get students set to learn. Create anticipatory set - gain student attention. State the lesson objectives. Present information effectively. Check for understanding & give guided practice. Allow for independent practice. See Table 13.9, Woolfolk text, p. 499

36 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Criticisms of Direct Instruction Limited to lower level objectives Based on traditional teaching methods Ignores innovative models Discourages students’ independent thinking Based on a wrong theory of student learning

37 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon The Teacher in Student- Centered Instruction

38 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Constructivist Teachers: Encourage student autonomy Use primary sources Use terms like ‘classify’, ‘analyze’, ‘predict’, ‘create’ Allow students to drive lessons Inquire about student understanding Encourage student dialogue Encourage student inquiry Probe student responses Actively engage students Allow wait time Help students discover relationships and develop metaphors See Table 13.10, Woolfolk Text, p. 500

39 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms

40 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms Using IEP’s with individual students Resource room Regular class room teachers collaborating with special education teachers Regular class room teachers team teaching with special education teachers Using computers with special students

41 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Focus on the Subject

42 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Learning to Read & Write Whole language Importance of skills and phonics Being sensible: See Table 13.11, Woolfolk, p. 509.

43 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Learning & Teaching Mathematics Focus on thinking processes Topics considered in depth rather than covering many topics Assessment is ongoing and shared by the students

44 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Constructivist Approach to Mathematics: Five Components Promote student’s autonomy. Develop students’ reflective processes. Construct a case history of each student. If a student is unable to solve a problem, intervene by negotiating a solution. When the problem is solved, review the solution. See Table 13.12, Woolfolk, p. 511.

45 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Learning Science Existing misconceptions Teach student self-examination: Does the concept make sense? Goal: conceptual change See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 512.

46 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Criticism of Constructivist Teaching Basic skills may be overlooked Constructivist methods may not work for all students

47 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Reflection Questions Explain the benefits and limits of whole- language and code-based approaches to teaching reading. How does the teaching of reading skills affect the teaching of mathematics? How does the teaching of reading skills affect the teaching of science?

48 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Conceptual Change Stages Initial discomfort Attempts to explain inconsistencies Attempts to adjust measurements or observations to fit personal theories Doubt Vacillation Conceptual change

49 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Summary The First Step: Planning Formats for Teaching: Teacher Directed Focus on the Teacher Effective Teaching in Inclusive Classrooms Focus on the Subject: Reading Mathematics Science

50 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions What are the levels of planning and how do they affect teaching? What is an instructional objective? Describe the three taxonomies of educational objectives. Describe teacher-centered and student- centered planning. Describe the lecture format.

51 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions Distinguish between convergent and divergent and high-level versus low-level questions. What are the use and disadvantages of group discussion? What methods have been used to study teaching? What are the general characteristics of good teaching? Contrast teaching in direct and student- centered instruction.

52 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon Review Questions What characterizes effective teaching for exceptional students? What resources do teachers have to work effectively with exceptional children? Describe the debate about learning to read. Describe constructivist approaches to mathematics and science teaching.

53 Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon End Chapter 13


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