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Understanding in reading By Jocelyne GIASSON Ch. 1 : A model of understanding in reading De Boeck, 1996 and 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding in reading By Jocelyne GIASSON Ch. 1 : A model of understanding in reading De Boeck, 1996 and 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding in reading By Jocelyne GIASSON Ch. 1 : A model of understanding in reading De Boeck, 1996 and 2008.

2 Traditional concept : 1. Reading activity = sequential list of skills to be taught hierarchically  mastering each skill separately = mastering reading Reading = mosaic of isolated skills. More contemporary model : 1. More global model directed towards the integration of skills :  Reading = holistic and unit based process ; interaction between skills is assumed (a reading skill separated from its context loses part of its meaning) Metaphors (p.5) - bicycle - symphonic orchestra Evolution of the concept of understanding in reading : a model

3 Traditional Concept : 2. Meaning is in the text  role of the reader = grasp the meaning and transpose it into the memory.  Reading = understanding what the author has written without any freedom of interpretation. More contemporary model : 2. Creation of meaning by the reader who makes use of - the text - knowledge - the purpose for reading. creating meaning ≠ understanding just anything Symphonic orchestra metaphor(p.6). Evolution of the concept of understanding in reading : reader’s role Reader Text

4 CONTEXT TEXTREADER A model of understanding which generates a consensus. The components : the text, the reader, the context. Structures Processes Author’s intention Form Purpose for reading Psychological Social Physical

5 The important point = the relationship between these variables A model of understanding which generates a consensus. the closer it is, the better the understanding R T C R C T T R C Situation 1Situation 2Situation 3 RT C The following situations make it difficult to understand while reading (p.8) :

6 READER Variables The READER Structures Processes Cognitive structures Emotional structures Knowledge of language Knowledge of the world Micro- process Integra- tion process Macro- process Elaboration Process Metacognitive process What the reader is ! What the reader does !

7 Structures = the reader’s characteristics (what the reader is) regardless of reading situations cognitive READER Variables emotional Of language(p.10) : -phonological knowledge -syntactic knowledge -semantic knowledge -pragmatic knowledge Of the world : Greater knowledge = better understanding = acquisition of new knowledge - Feelings about reading - Specific interests + some others (p.15)

8 READER Variables Processes = what the reader does while reading (skills in use) are simultaneous (and not sequential) Microprocess Integration process Macroprocess directed towards understanding the information contained within a sentence. directed towards a search for coherence between sentences  making links between assertions or sentences. directed towards global understanding of the text, towards links which allow the reader to make the text coherent as a whole.

9 READER Variables allows the reader to make hypotheses, to integrate the text with previous knowledge  allows the reader to surpass the text (to go beyond it) and to make inferences which were unforeseen by the author. Elaboration process Metacognitive process manages understanding, allowing the reader to adjust to the text and to the situation (to spot a loss of understanding, …)

10 READER Variables microprocess - Capacity to reconstruct a part of the text while using the same or almost the same syntactic and semantic structure as the author = microprocess integration process - Capacity to make links = integration process macroprocess - Capacity to establish generalizations = macroprocess elaboration process - Capacity to go beyond the text = elaboration process metacognitive process - Capacity to reflect on how the text is understood = metacognitive process In short, the different cognitive activities of the reader :

11 CONTEXT TEXTREADER A model of understanding which generates a consensus. The components : the text, the reader, the context. Structures Processes Author’s intention Form Purpose for reading Psychological Social Physical

12 TEXT variables The reader has different behaviours based on the types of texts  classification is necessary. Based on the purpose for reading : - practical purpose - aesthetic purpose Based on the author’s intentions : - to act on the reader’s emotions : poetry, tales, stories, … - to act on the reader’s behavior : steps to take, instructions to follow, manuals, problem statements, caution advice, … - to act on the reader’s knowledge : reports, articles, monographs … Based on literary styles : illustrated albums, tales and legends, novels,documentation, comic books, poetry, humoristic texts How ?

13 CONTEXT TEXTREADER A model of understanding which generates a consensus. The components : the text, the reader, the context. Structures Processes Author’s intention Form Purpose for reading Psychological Social Physical

14 CONTEXT variables Consists of all the conditions which the reader may run into (with the structures and the processes) on entering into contact with a text ; among these conditions are those established by the reader and those established by the environment. Psychological context : 1. The purpose for reading = the most important (e.g. : reading a description of a house as a prospective burglar or as a prospective buyer, p.22) 2. The motivation for reading 3. The interest in the text involved. = establishing a project !

15 CONTEXT variables Social context = all forms of interaction which take place during a reading task between the reader, the teacher or the peers (individual reading, reading in front of a group, guided reading or without a guide, …) Physical context = all the material conditions present while reading (outside noise, text reproduction quality, room temperature, …)

16 Concretely In order to encourage student understanding first of all make sure that the three variables are organized adequately : The reader Does the reader have enough knowledge to understand the text ? The text Is the text at the reader’s skill level? The context Do the psychological, social and physical contexts encourage understanding ? An affirmative answer to the 3 questions = preliminary condition for teaching understanding in reading. Images : clipart on


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