Presentation on theme: "Jefferson-Madison: An Overview WAR OF 1812 -James Madison became President in 1808 -British continue harassment of U.S. trade and settlers Impressment,"— Presentation transcript:
WAR OF 1812 -James Madison became President in 1808 -British continue harassment of U.S. trade and settlers Impressment, aiding natives -US declares war on Britain “Mr. Madison’s War” Small army and navy -U.S. fails to invade Canada British keep Canada By the spring of 1812, President Madison decided to go to war against Britain. Madison believed that Britain was trying to strangle American trade and cripple the American economy. Congress approved the war declaration in early June.
WAR OF 1812 -British burn parts of Washington, 1814 Turn to Baltimore harbor Francis Scott Key writes anthem at Ft. McHenry By 1814, the superior British were raiding and burning towns all along the Atlantic coast. The redcoats brushed aside some hastily-assembled soldiers and entered Washington, D.C. In retaliation for the U.S. victory at the Battle of York, the capital of Upper Canada, in which U.S. forces burned the governor’s mansion and the legislative assembly buildings, the British burned the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings. On August 24, Madison and other federal officials had to flee from their own capital.
Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner after the all- night bombardment at Fort McHenry
WAR OF 1812 -Hartford Convention debates New England’s part in war—Federalists opposing the war Want constitutional amendments to increase New England’s power— states rights -Treaty of Ghent, 1814 (nothing changed hands) Officially ends the War of 1812 America recognized as a strong nation U.S. and Britain sign the Treaty of Ghent, officially ending the War of 1812
WAR OF 1812 -US wins Battle of New Orleans Two weeks after war - Andrew Jackson becomes hero Badly defeats British Unified country, restored patriotism “The war had renewed and reinstated the National feelings and character, which the Revolution had given…The people…are more American: they feel and act more as a nation.” ~Albert Gallatin, U.S. Minister to France
Battle of New Orleans Song In 1814 we took a little trip, Along with colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip. We took a little bacon and we took a little beans, And we fought the bloody British in the town of New Orleans. We fired our guns and the British kept a comin, There wasn’t bout as many as there was awhile ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. Oh we looked down the river and we seen the British come. There must have been a hundred of em beatin on a drum. They stepped so high and they made their bugles ring. We stood behind our cotton bales and didn¹t say a thing. Old hickory said we could take em by surprise, If we didn¹t fire our muskets till we looked em in the eyes. We held our fire till we seen their faces well, Then we opened up our squirrel guns and gave em a little...well....we.......fired our guns and the British kept a comin, There wasn’t bout as many as there was awhile ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. We fired our cannons till the barrels melted down, Then we grabbed an alligator and we fired another round. We filled his head with cannonballs and powdered his behind, And when we touched the powder off, the gator lost his mind. We fired our guns and the British kept a comin, There wasn’t bout as many as there was awhile ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. We fired our guns and the British kept a comin, There wasn’t bout as many as there was awhile ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin On down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.
Federal Powers -Powers expanded -growth of the national government’s powers Federal government grows very strong -Implied Powers and the National Bank National supremacy -Judicial Review—Marbury v. Madison Increases power of federal courts “This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof…shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby.” ~U.S. Constitution~ John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, upheld these beliefs in the Constitution, and he helped establish the supremacy of the federal government.
Federal Powers -Implied Powers and National Supremacy confirmed -McCulloch v. Maryland National bank is necessary (implied) States cannot tax the bank (supremacy) -Gibbons v. Ogden interstate commerce controlled by National government
Foreign Affairs -end of the war of 1812 -Era of Good Feelings U.S. is prosperous and growing; national pride -northern border with Canada established 49 th parallel British give up territory to U.S. near Oregon -Florida becomes part of the US, 1819 -Adams-Onis Treaty also sets SW border with Spanish Mexico Spain breaks Pinckney Treaty
Frontier violence with Native Americans as Spain breaks Pinckney Treaty
Monroe Doctrine -James Monroe became President in 1816 -U.S. is still a fragile nation in the world arena -attempts to claim part of the world as our own “neighborhood” Wants to protect western hemisphere from Europe -Monroe Doctrine states that Europeans should not interfere with this hemisphere Any attack seen as attack on the U.S. “The American continents,… are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers...” ~James Monroe
Missouri Compromise -slavery had not been issue since Convention -abolitionist movement growing People began the fight to end slavery -1820: equal number of free and slave states Balance in Congress -Missouri and Maine will enter at same time to keep balance -line is drawn at Missouri to determine future of slavery Line drawn at 36’30 Everything north in LA Purchase is closed to slavery; everything south is open to it “The Missouri question…is the most portentous one which ever yet threatened our Union. In the gloomiest moment of the Revolutionary War I never had any apprehensions equal to what I feel from this source.” ~Thomas Jefferson~