2Bell WorkWhat comes to mind when you think of WWII?
3Please write this definition into your notes. Totalitarian State: government in which a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens’ lives.Components:There is only one political party to choose fromThe state controls the economyPolice and spies are used to enforce the will of the stateThe media is censored and controlled by the governmentSchools and the media are used to indoctrinate and mobilize citizensUnquestioning obedience to a single leader
4Central Question: How did Hitler gain control of Germany and build a totalitarian state? (title) The story of how Hitler came to power and what he did once he had it, is one of the most powerful stories in history. As we learn this story, we will treat it like a novel – charting his rise to power, the climax of his control over the German people in the Kristallnacht, and the falling action of aftermath of the final solution.DirectionsFirst we will look at conditions in Germany at the end of WWIThen, we will popcorn through p and use the graphic organizer to answer our central question.
5Germany after WWIEvent 1: The conditions of the Treaty of Versailles hurt the German economy and shamed the German peopleDebt and InflationThe Kaiser is gone (abdicated during war) Replaced by the Weimar RepublicConstitution and Democratic system but weak leaders constantly fight with each otherBlamed for the Treaty of VersaillesWar guilt clauseRestrictions on militaryThe people want another Bismarck who will promise to restore Germany to her former greatness
7Bell WorkWhat is propaganda?Propaganda: Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
88 Propaganda Techniques Name callingGlittering generalitiesTransferTestimonialPlain folksBandwagonFearBad logicUnwarranted extrapolationThese techniques encourage you to follow non-rational, emotional drives and to NOT question the information presented instead take it at face valueThey encourage you to use a “we” v. “them” mentality
9Name CallingLinks a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence.The most obvious type of name calling involves bad names. For example, consider the following:CommieFascistPigYuppieBumQueerTerrorist
10Glittering Generalities Name Calling in reverseOur first and natural reaction is to assume that the speaker is using the word in our sense, that he believes as we do on this important subject. This lowers our 'sales resistance' and makes us far less suspicious than we ought to beExamples: civilization, Christianity, good, proper, right, democracy, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, medicine, health, and love
11EuphemismsAttempts to pacify the audience in order to make an unpleasant reality more palatable. This is accomplished by using words that are bland and euphemistic.Collateral damage, final solution, War Department -> Department of Defense etc.
12TransferThe propagandist carries over the authority, sanction, and prestige of something we respect and revere to something he would have us acceptI know the president, my opponent spends time with dictators etc.
13Testimonialtestimonial involves citing individuals who are not qualified to make judgments about a particular issueMichael Jordan wants you to buy Nike shoes
14Plain Folksspeakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people.”Wearing flannel and jeans in Iowa when you really wear expensive suits
15Bandwagon“Everyone else is doing it, and so should you." Since few of us want to be left behind, this technique can be quite successful.Rent a stadium and fill it with people, make sure the media is there to see all of itUse symbols, colors, music, movement, all the dramatic arts.Addresses specific groups held together by common ties of nationality, religion, race, sex, vocation.
16FearDisaster will result if they do not follow a particular course of action"The streets of our country are in turmoil. The universities are filled with students rebelling and rioting. Communists are seeking to destroy our country. Russia is threatening us with her might, and the Republic is in danger. Yes - danger from within and without. We need law and order! Without it our nation cannot survive." - Adolf Hitler, 1932
17Bad LogicDrawing bad conclusions by forcing together facts that don’t necessarily go togetherPremise 1: All Christians believe in God.Premise 2: All Muslims believe in God.Conclusion: All Christians are Muslims.orPremise 1: Hillary Clinton supports gun-control legislation.Premise 2: All fascist regimes of the twentieth century have passed gun-control legislation.Conclusion: Hillary Clinton is a fascist.
18Unwarranted Extrapolation Making huge predictions about the future on the basis of a few small facts is a common logical fallacy.Usually used to give a basis to a fear-appeal“If you allow women to vote, men will lose all of their jobs and be forced to stay at home while their wives go to work”
19What are the techniques used in this modern example of propaganda? Obamaville
20Try out your analytical skills on Nazi propaganda For each item answer the following:What does it want the viewer to believe or do?What techniques are used by the item?Is this an effective example of propaganda?
21A 1932 election posterOpponents were using bright flashy colors in their posters
22'The seed of peace, not dragon's teeth' cartoon of Hitler, from the magazine Kladderadatsch, 22 March 1936
23'One People, One Nation, One Leader!' poster of Hitler, 1938
24The poster for the 'Eternal Jews' exhibition, 1937
25On your own…Using the ipad click on the Nazi Propaganda Website link on Mrs. V’s websiteLook through the database and choose 2 images and answer the following questions regarding those imagesTitle of piece.What does it want the viewer to believe or do?What techniques are used by the item?Is this an effective example of propaganda?You will be asked to share one of your items and your analysis of it tomorrow with the rest of the class
27Your RoleYou may choose which group you would like to be in but it is 1st come 1st serve:Judges4 peopleAttorneys (you will either argue that the defendant is either guilty or innocent)4 defense4 prosecutionDefense witness (you will create an identity based on research)Prosecution witness (you will create an identity based on research)Defendants (you will also choose an identity)JuryThe remainder
28Counts 4 Charges The first was Conspiracy to Wage Aggressive War. The second charge was Crimes Against Peace, including the violation of treaties and other agreements.The third count was War Crimes, such as the use of slave labor and the unfair treatment of prisoners of war.The fourth count was Crimes Against Humanity, which involved the events in concentration and death camps, as well as other vicious attacks on civilians.