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ASSOCIATION OF FINNISH LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES (AFLRA) NORTH-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE.

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Presentation on theme: "ASSOCIATION OF FINNISH LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES (AFLRA) NORTH-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASSOCIATION OF FINNISH LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES (AFLRA) NORTH-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT CO-OPERATION PROGRAMME GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE DISCUSSION NOTES By Prof. Bertha Omari Koda

2 Introduction: Gender Equality in Local Governance (LG): N-S Cooperation Context:  Programme Document ( ) for Cross-cutting issues 5.6. Cross-cutting issues Relevant statement “The NSLGC Programme needs to address mainstreaming the gender questions at all levels of programme implementation. According to the Government of Finland Resolution of 2007 promotion of the rights and the status of women and girls, and promotion of gender and social equity are important to the Finnish development policy. The minimum requirement is to ensure that in all concrete cooperation plans the consequences for women and men are taken into consideration carefully. The Programme aims at paying special attention to the participation of female elected representatives. It is recommended that there is balanced gender participation in the organization of the linkage networks.” (Programme Document 2007, 25.)

3 Gender Equality in LG:N-S Coop. (cont). Critical Stages  Acquiring knowledge to address gender issues  Building support for gender equality within the LG organs/institutions and the broader community  Implementing gender-sensitive policies, programs and services  Allocating resources to the tasks

4 Critical Stages (cont.)  Promoting gender equality beyond the LG organs/institutions, with citizens, organizations and businesses  Achieving Gender Equality policy, programs and services.

5 1.0 Conceptual Framework: GENDER MAINSTREAMING Context:  At the Fourth United Nations World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) the Platform for Action was adopted  Through the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, governments made a commitment to “mainstream”/integrate gender perspectives into policy and planning processes and all programs  The Platform for Action states that: …governments and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programs so that, before decisions are taken, an analysis is made of the effects on women and men, respectively

6 1.0 Conceptual Framework (cont.) GENDER MAINSTREAMING: Definition: The United Nations defines gender mainstreaming as: “The process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programmes, in all areas and at all levels” (The report of the Economic and Social Council for United Nations, 1997)  Process of assessing and bridging gender gaps/imbalances  Strategy of making experiences and concerns of marginalized grps. integral of all development interventions so as to bridge gender gap  Approach of addressing needs of social groups and ensuring gender equity & equality

7 GENDER MAINSTREAMING (Details)  Integrating gender issues in core activities of institutions/organizations  Put in the main course (Incorporating gender issues in policy, budget, programme, and project)  Making gender an integral part of development agenda  Equal opportunities/Equity in roles and resources’ allocation  The different situations of women and men being made visible  Issues related to individuals being assessed from a gender perspective

8 Concept. Cont.  Process/method and procedures of integrating gender concerns into institutions/organizations so that women and men can participate and benefit equally from them  The impact of changes being assessed from the perspective of women and men in their living conditions  A question of social justice, and a necessity for ensuring equitable and sustainable human development by the most effective and efficient means

9 Concepts cont. Prerequisites for Gender Mainstreaming  Gender analysis: for understanding of gender issues/concerns/ imbalances (what, where, why, how and when)  Commitment (Political will) changing attitudes, ideologies, norm  Action Research Research Sensitization and Training Sensitization and Training Policy Policy Planning Planning Budgeting (Gender Budgeting) Budgeting (Gender Budgeting) Programming Programming Laws Laws

10 Gender Mainstreaming (cont.) Five Most Critical Points to Be considered: 1. Real understanding of the needs of men and women 2. Assess male and female daily economics and who is most disadvantaged in using their time, labour, and resources and Why. (Aim at making things better for the disadvantaged group) 3. Check that all data collected at all stages of the project cycle is gender disaggregated 4. Ensure the project contributes to the empowerment of men and women 5. Results reflect targeted male and female needs

11 2.0 GENDER BUDGETING (GB) 2.1 Introduction  Budget – a plan on income and expenditure i.e. a plan on what (resources) and how to spend and where the resources will be obtained from (Ideally budgeting is for meeting practical and strategic gender needs of men and women)  Budgeting is both Political and Technical  Through budgets, programs/ plans/policies are concretized into action (generating and allocating resources)

12 Gender Budgeting (cont.) Gender Budgeting (GB) = Gender responsive budgeting  A tool for analysis of gender gaps  Instrument for holding govts. accountable to its gender equality commitments (attempts to breakdown/disaggregate govt. mainstream budget according to its impact on men and women with attention given to existing gender relations)  Tool for tracing how govts. Budgets affect women in the unpaid care economy

13 Gender Budget (cont.)  A strategy to influence and transform planning &budgeting Processes through use of participatory techniques  A process that facilitates gender analysis in formulating budgets and resource allocation at various levels – high level – national level { how much money, where to get it, what for?}  Technical and political exercise for effective and efficient resource mobilize and allocation. E.g. Tax collectors are taxed to design strategies and methods of mobilizing money while political leaders (MPs & councillors/reps are given a tool to hold public office bearers accountable to their constituencies/sectors  Part of democratic struggles

14 Gender Budget (cont.)  Tool to consciously ensure LGs and other institutions focus on marginalized/disadvantaged group  Tool and process designed to facilitate a gender analysis in the formulation of govt budgets and allocating resources

15 Gender Budget (cont.) Objectives 1. LG allocates resources in a gender-sensitive manner that reflects and meets the needs of diverse groups. 2. LG is aware of the need for human and financial resources to support gender-based planning 3. LG budgets and approves adequate human and financial resources to support gender-based planning.

16 Gender Budget (cont.) Objectives  Campaign for gender equity and equality through resource mobilize and allocation  Help track misallocation/misappropriation of govt. money  Examine budgetary process and allocation in strategic ministries  Provide popular information and an advocacy campaign to influence the public and inform about budgeting process & consequences on community development  Create link between social and economic policies (consistency between economic goals and social commitments)

17 Gender Budget (cont.) Importance of GB Assist in promoting equality, equity, efficiency, transparency in budget process and realizing good governance Assist in promoting equality, equity, efficiency, transparency in budget process and realizing good governance Offers practical way of evaluating LG action and progress made towards gender equality Offers practical way of evaluating LG action and progress made towards gender equality Powerful tool for gender mainstreaming Powerful tool for gender mainstreaming Powerful tool for women empowerment Powerful tool for women empowerment

18 Gender Budget (cont.) Challenges of GB  Effective participation of all stakeholders (lack of skills in budgeting and budget analysis)  Limited capacity in gender budgeting  Adequate funding for the GB and planning process (for bottom up process)  Absence of gender disaggregated data

19 Gender Budget (cont.)  Need for multi-sectors approach to GB  Creating institutional arrangements for GB (eg GB Task Force representing all departments)

20 3.0 ASSESSMENT TOOLS: 3.1LG Tool The tool is designed to assess the LG’s capacity and competency in planning and implementing gender sensitive policy, programs and services. Assessment Context A. Knowledge of: Legal frameworks governing women’s, men’s and children’s human rights Legal frameworks governing women’s, men’s and children’s human rights Relevant government policies Relevant government policies National and local organizations and government agencies with expertise in gender analysis and women’s rights National and local organizations and government agencies with expertise in gender analysis and women’s rights The role of cultural values and attitudes The role of cultural values and attitudes

21 LG tool: Context cont. B. Commitment to: Play a leadership role (e.g develop a gender policy? Address gender issues?) Play a leadership role (e.g develop a gender policy? Address gender issues?) Engage in dialogue (raise/discuss gender issues in all agenda? allocate resources in a gender-sensitive manner? Engage men and women in planning process that reflects and meets the needs of diverse groups?). Engage in dialogue (raise/discuss gender issues in all agenda? allocate resources in a gender-sensitive manner? Engage men and women in planning process that reflects and meets the needs of diverse groups?). Work with community stakeholders and champions (community members, community-based organizations and local businesses) Work with community stakeholders and champions (community members, community-based organizations and local businesses) Undertake competent analysis, make policy and develop strategies Undertake competent analysis, make policy and develop strategies Build LG’s capacity and public awareness Build LG’s capacity and public awareness

22 Context/commitment cont.  Manage the change process  allocate resources for gender mainstreaming?  recognize importance of gender-based research/analysis/ need to collect sex- disaggregated data? establish data collection and analysis systems and train staff in gender analysis?  officials and staff behave in a gender sensitive and gender-aware manner? aware of the need for monitoring and reporting on gender equality in the LG?)  Communicate messages about the benefits of gender equality  use traditional and modern media?;  provide feedback to stakeholders?;  use experts;  Use different forums? Etc)

23 Usefulness/Importance of the LG tool  To improve ability to meet the needs of all community members  To know where the LG is in terms of addressing gender issues  To identify appropriate actions for ensuring higher stages of meeting needs of all stakeholders  To identify ways of collaboration between citizens/stakeholders and the LG in promoting gender equality, and hold it accountable for its progress

24 3.2 Other Tools 1. African Gender and Development Index (AGDI)  Initiated by UNECA in 1997 as a project  Aimed at assisting in evaluating the status of implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (BPA) after a period of 10 years  Indicators and monitoring tools were developed by members, and consensus to use them and the actual applying them in real situations and preparing reports attained.  Reports were intended to assist with lobbying for change and monitoring progress over years  In Tanzania the report was prepared by TGNP for MCDGC in 2003 under the guidance of a national steering committee/council

25 AGDI (cont.)  The index is a measure of relative gender equality i.e it compares males and females in terms of ratios  It comprises of 53 indictors divided into 3 blocks: i.Social power (Education and Health) ii.Economic power (income, employment and access to resources) iii.Political power (public power and civil society).

26 AGDI(cont.) The underlying assumptions were:  That gender equity and social justice is preferable and important to society than unequal and unjust relations  That the levels of power related to gender issues (social, economic, legal, cultural and political powers) are interrelated. Thus in the quantitative component of the AGDI, equal weights are given to its three components, social, economic and political aspects and none of these are given preferential weight  That the processes related to women’s empowerment have both quantitative and qualitative dimensions and to capture these dimensions for policy purposes it is essential to measure both these aspects.

27 African Women’s Progress Scoreboard  Used together with the AGDI  Captures elements of women’s situation and gender relations associated to women’s rights which African governments are mandated to address  The scoring on women’s progress was on an 0, 1 and 2 scale to be used to assess issues on ratification, reporting, law, policy commitment, development of a plan, targets, institutional mechanism, budget, human resources, research, involvement of civil society, information and dissemination, monitoring and evaluation

28 A W P S (cont.) “0” was given where government had “done nothing”; “0” was given where government had “done nothing”; “1” was given where government performance was “fair” “1” was given where government performance was “fair” “2” was given where government performance was “good” “2” was given where government performance was “good” As far as economic power/women’s economic rights is concerned, issues looked at were:  ILO conventions (e.g. Equal remuneration convention No. 100 of 1951 and discrimination (employment and occupation).  agricultural extension services and  equal access to land

29 A W P S (cont.) Secondary sources of data/information for the AGDI were: Population and Housing CensusPopulation and Housing Census Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Household budget Surveys (HBS)Household budget Surveys (HBS) The National Bureau of Statistics in every country used as major source of data/information to complement primary sourcesThe National Bureau of Statistics in every country used as major source of data/information to complement primary sources

30 4. Tools For Analyzing Local Government Budgets 1. Gender Disaggregated Beneficiaries Assessment (GDBA) (Capturing views of beneficiaries through FGD’s, interviews, PRA)  Seek views of beneficiaries  Compare no,1 with progress reports7statistics/figures  Disaggregate beneficiaries between men and women (using # and %)  Compare benefits to women and men  Establish causes and measures for identified gaps  Cost and incorporate measures in new/proceeding plan

31 Tools (cont.) 2. Gender Aware Budget Statement (GABS)  Report by depts. on audit of program/activities and related budgets  Assessment of impact on women and men  Accountability report vs. gender equality objectives 3. Gender Aware Policy Appraisal (Policy analysis and associated resource allocation on reduction/increase of gender equality)

32 Tools (cont.) 4. Gender Disaggregated Public Expenditure Incidence Analysis (Compares public expenditure to reveal distribution between women, men and children) 5. Gender disaggregated analysis of the impact of the budget on time use (Relationship between national budget and how time is used at household level) (Uganda practice only 1 and 2).

33 REFERENCES Anderson, M (1993): Focusing on Women: UNIFEM’s Experience in Mainstreaming. UNIFEM. Diane Elson(2002): “Integrating Gender into Government Budgets within a Context of Economic Reform” in Debbie Budlender et, al., Gender Budgets Make More Cents Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 2002 Debbie Budlender and Rhonda Sharp (1998): How to do a gender –sensitive budget analysis: Contemporary research and practice. Commonwealth Secretariat, Guha, S and Goswami, S. Impact of Gender Budgeting on Women Empowerment (from http;//www.gender_budget.org/content/view/642/1 downloaded on 04/03/09) Marilyn M. Rubin and John R. Bartle(2005): ”Integrating Gender into Government Budgets: A new Perspective”. Public Administration Review Vol. 65 No. 3, May 2005 pp Morgan C (2007): Gender Budgets An Overview in Canada Library of Parliament Political and Social Affairs Division 27/11/2007 (from `downloaded on 10/03/09) Rhonda Sharp (2003): Budgeting for Equity: Gender Budget Initiatives within a Framework of Performance Oriented Budgeting. UNDF for Women (UNIFEM) 2003 The report of the Economic and Social Council for United Nations, 1997 Peter F. Murphy(1989): Towards a Feminist masculinity in Feminist Studies Vol. 15#2 summer 1989 pp Mukangara, F. (2006): Gender Equality and Equity: UDSM Initiatives in Bridging The Gender Gap Unpublished Paper Presented at the Women’s Executive Development Conference: Change in Climate? Prospects for Gender Equity in Universities. Australia, April 11th -13th 2006 The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities The North-South Local Government Co-operation Programme Programme Document ( )for Teresa Buchen (2007): Gender Budget Initiatives uganda, mozambique and nicaragua (pdf) vienna, march, 2007 for Vienna Institute for Development and Cooperation (vicd) 2007 in: budgets.org/uploads/user-S/Gender...downloaded on 13/03/09 budgets.org/uploads/user-S/Gender...downloaded on 13/03/09http://www.gender- budgets.org/uploads/user-S/Gender...downloaded on 13/03/09 Gender Mainstreaming in downloaded on 13/03/09


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