2What is Functional English Functional English is usage of the English language required to perform a specific function.A good command of English is often required for academic and career progression.
3Functional English Equips One to Conduct Oneself in various situations like … Greeting Friends, elders, superiors, strangersIntroducing self & othersMaking Telephone calls or answering themAsking for or giving informationAsking for things in shops, counters & restaurantsDescribing things, people, places or processesExpressing opinions or reactions to programmes, plays, books or films
4Functional English is used in various situations like… Participating in discussions & debatesGiving or receiving InstructionsNarrating anecdotes, stories & discussing themCarry on sustained conversation with friends or strangersGiving a report of an event
5Features of Functional English Functional English is related to spoken formSpoken language is less structured, a little loose,We don’t have to be sticklers for too correct grammarSpoken language is more informal, more spontaneous like yeah for yesSpeaking is processed in real timeSpeaking depends on intonation, stress, facial expression, body language, speed of delivery
6Objectives:To be able to speak in various situations by learning and practicing necessaryExpressions,Structures of sentences etc.To achieve the ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations To learn sufficient vocabulary to use with grammar patterns.
7Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar Objectives :A practical command of the four skills of the language with special emphasis on ORAL skill. Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns.
8Learning Techniques and Activities DialoguesRole plays A situational presentation of new sentence patterns. Drills to practice the patterns.
93 Things a Speaker needs to keep in mind 1. Why am I speaking? (Purpose)For Ex: Am I requesting?Am I complaining?2. Who am I speaking to?For Ex: A stranger, a friend, a superior2. The settingFor Ex: Is it a formal or informal setting?Office or at home
10For Interactional Function, a Speaker needs… Use of correct sounds (pronunciation, intonation & stress)Use of correct structures (syntax)Acceptable degree of fluency (vocabulary & grammar)Transactional & interpersonal skillsTaking short & long turns while speakingManagement of interactionNegotiating MeaningListening skillsUsing formulaic language (stock sentences)Wow, that’s a great outfit you are wearing,Oh! Really….That’s too bad. / Sad….
11Things that matter while conversing ClarityVoice modulationFacial ExpressionBody languagePositioningSpeed of delivery
12Conversational Skills In a conversation, a speaker needs to knowWhen to initiate a conversation,How to maintain a conversation,How to close the conversation
13Initiating a conversation What do we do for Initiating a conversation?GreetingsIntroductionsAttention gettingAcknowledging presence
14Example Anusha: Hello Nalini, How are you? Nalini: Am good, how are you?Anusha: FineNalini: And how’s you project coming along?Anusha: It’s progressing well, thanks. Hey look, there’s Deepak. Deepak, hi, how are things?Deepak: Things are just great, oh hello, Anusha. Haven’t seen you for ages, where have you been?Anusha: Was out of station the whole of last week. Went to attend my cousins wedding,Deepak: I see.
15What do we do to maintain a conversation? Asking questions?RespondingGiving InformationExplainingEncouraging
16Maintaining a Conversation An Example:Kishore: Ramesh! How nice to hear from you. Have you had a good holiday?Ramesh: Had a wonderful time. I went away actuallyKishore: Oh, did you? Where?Ramesh: GunturKishore: How nice!Ramesh: We went to see my parentsKishore: Really, where do they live in Guntur?Ramesh: In a small village near Guntur actually, it’s a place called Vadlamudi.
17What do we do to close a Conversation? Announcing departureReasonThankingApologiesSaying goodbye
18Closing a Conversation An Example:Anusha: Gosh! It’s almost eleven, I really must go.Nalini: Are you sure, you don’t want to join me for lunch?Anusha: I have a meeting with my team at 12.Nalini: Well, it has been nice talking to you, that too after such along time. We hardly meet these days. Anyways keep in touchAnusha: I sure will. Sorry to rush off like this. ByeNalini : Bye
19Stock Expressions Expressions of politeness: If it is not inconvenient If you don’t mindI don’t know if you will agree with meI would be happy.Some polite question forms:Would you mind…?Would you mind helping…?Would you like to have…?Could I speak to …please?
20Stock ExpressionsSuggestion : Would you like me to get you the newspaper?Request : Could you open the window please?Offering Help : Would you like me to carry your bag?Inviting : Would you like to join us for tea this evening?Permission : May I use your phone?Excuse me sir, would you mind if I came an hour late…Apologizing : I am extremely sorry for my assistant’s behaviorComplaining : I am sorry to bring to your notice…I am afraid the machine is faulty…Agreeing : Yes, I can see your point of view…Disagreeing : Well, I don’t quite see it that way…Taking the initiative : May I suggest… How about…
21Introducing People What's your name? Who are you? My name is ... I am ...My friends call me ...You can call me ...Haven't we met (before)?Yes, I think we have.No, I don't think we have. I think we've already met.I don't think we've met (before).This is ...Meet ...Have you met ...?Yes, I have.No, I haven't.Yes, I think I have.No, I don't think I have.Hello, ... (name)Nice to meet you. (informal)Pleased to meet you.How do you do? (formal)Nice to see you.Nice to see you again.
22Say Goodbye Good bye. Bye. / See you. See you later. See you soon. See you tomorrow.See you next week.Good night.
23Health How are you? How are you today? Fine, thank you/thanks. Not too bad.Very well.I'm okay / all right.Not too well, actually.What's wrong with you?What's the matter with you?Are you all right?I'm tired .I'm exhausted .I've got a cold.
24Stating your Opinion It seems to me that ... In my opinion, ... I am of the opinion that .../ I take the view that ..My personal view is that ...In my experience ...As far as I understand / can see, ...As I see it, ... / From my point of view ...As far as I know ... / From what I know ...I might be wrong but ...If I am not mistaken ...I believe one can (safely) say ...It is claimed that ...I must admit that ...I cannot deny that ...I can imagine that ...I think/believe/suppose ...Personally, I think ...That is why I think ...I am sure/certain/convinced that ...I am not sure/certain, but ...I am not sure, because I don't know the situation exactly.I am not convinced that ...I have read that ...I am of mixed opinions (about / on) ...I am of mixed opinions about / on this.I have no opinion in this matter.
25Outlining Facts The fact is that The (main) point is that ... This proves that ...What it comes down to is that ...It is obvious that ...It is certain that ...One can say that ...It is clear that ...There is no doubt that ...
26Expression of Agreement There are many reasons for ...There is no doubt about it that ...I simply must agree to that.I am of the same opinion.I am of the same opinion as the author.I completely/absolutely agree with the author.
27Qualified Disagreement It is only partly true that...I can agree to that only with reservations.That seems obvious, but ...That is not necessarily so.It is not as simple as it seems.Under certain circumstances ...
28Disagreement There is more to it than that. The problem is that ... I (very much) doubt whether ...This is in complete contradiction to ...What is even worse, ...I am of a different opinion because ...I cannot share this / that / the view.I cannot to with this idea.What I object to is ...Unlike the author I think ...
29Linking Arguments That is why ... First of all, I think ... After all, ...The reason is that ...In that respect ...The result of this is that ...Another aspect/point is that ...It is because ...Although it is true that ... it would be wrong to claim that ...That may sometimes be true, but ...One could argue that ..., but ...On the one hand, ... On the other hand, ...First of all, I think ...Not only that, but I also think that ...Not only are they ..., they are also ...They are not ..., nor are they ...There are various/several/many reasons for this.First, ... / Firstly, ...Second, ... / Secondly, ...Moreover, ... / Furthermore, ... / In addition, ...Another significant point is that ...Finally, ...
30Providing Examples Take for example (the case of) ... Look at ... For instance ... / For example ...Let me give you an example.
31Additions and Conclusion Most probably ...It appears to be ...It is important to mention that...As I already indicated ...In other words, ...I am most concerned about ...I should like to repeat once again that ...I should like to emphasise that ...I would (just) like to add ...So all in all I believe that...(In) summing up it can be said that ...Weighing the pros and cons, I come to the conclusion that ...
32Conjunctions but / still / however especially / mainly / particularly beforeas / because / sinceso thatthen / after thatthat's why / soeither ... orafter allafterof coursethough / although / even thoughoras soon asas long asfinally / eventuallyin spite of / even so / all the sameperhaps ...above allneither ... norbecausefirst of allfor example / for instance
33Weather What's the weather like today? What will the weather be like tomorrow?Nice day today, isn't it?What awful weather!What a lovely day!It's raining.It's snowing.It's …Tomorrow it will be …sunnycloudyovercastfoggystormywindycoldwarmhotYesterday it was …
34Learning OutcomesShould be able to initiate, sustain & effectively terminate a conversationShould be able to persuade & convince other’s with your point of viewShould narrate & make a factual oral report of an incidentShould be able to conceptualize & speak of hypothetical scenarios.
35Class Assignment on Dialogue Writing/Role Play To be done in the class after Faculty Presentation on Functional English
36Exercise -1You are Suresh. You are going to a new town to appear for an interview. You have never been there but you have a friend Ram who lives there. Use the information given below to construct a dialogue between your friend and you. Make three more sets of exchanges.The first one has been done as an example. best way to reach the place — where to stay — any interesting places to visitSuresh : Hello, am I speaking to Ram ? This is Suresh calling.Ram : What a pleasant surprise ! After such a long time !
37Exercise -2You have been given an opportunity of interviewing Sachin Tendulkar, the cricketicon of today. You are impressed with his progress from a middle class background to a status of high renown. You want to know about his childhood struggles, how he took to cricket, his parental support, his inspiration, his plans for the future etc. Frame eight questions that you would like to ask him.