Presentation on theme: "Talking to a lay audience about colon cancer screening Daniel M. Rosenblum, PhD Program Coordinator & Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine."— Presentation transcript:
Talking to a lay audience about colon cancer screening Daniel M. Rosenblum, PhD Program Coordinator & Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine & Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ Co-coordinator, Essex County Cancer Coalition
Lifetime Invasive Colorectal Cancer Risks (Nationwide %) Race/Ethnicity Ever Getting Diagnosed Dying MenWomenMenWomen Black (includes Hispanic) 4.975.182.422.37 White (includes Hispanic) 5.404.982.172.00 Asian/Pacific Islander 5.545.032.121.96 Hispanic (can be any race) 5.214.432.091.81 Amer. Indian/Alaskan Native 3.734.901.891.50 2004-2006 data from SEER 17 areas
Probability of Being Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer, NJ vs US Age Range Ever (Birth to Death) 0-3940-5960-79 Men US 0.08% (1/1250) 0.91% (1/110) 3.51% (1/28) 5.39% (1/19) NJ 0.08% (1/1184) 0.96% (1/104) 3.98% (1/25) 6.24% (1/16) Women US 0.08% (1/1250) 0.72% (1/139) 2.69% (1/37) 5.03% (1/20) NJ 0.09% (1/1096) 0.76% (1/131) 2.96% (1/34) 5.78% (1/17) 2004-2006 data from NJDHSS CES, accessed 05/18/2011
How does colorectal cancer compare to other cancer risks? Colorectal cancer is the third most common type diagnosed (first is prostate in men, breast in women, second is lung) Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death (first is lung, second is breast in women, prostate in men; fourth is pancreas)
Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates, 2003-2007 USANJEssex Co. Men All18.104.22.168 Black66.967.670.9 White56.163.259.0 Hispanic48.656.352.5 Non-Hispanic63.563.7 Women All42.446.347.4 Black50.752.653.3 White41.345.642.9 Hispanic34.539.432.6 Non-Hispanic46.849.0 National figures from CDC/NPCR US Cancer Statistics – An Interactive Atlas; NJ & Essex County figures from NJDHSS NJ Cancer Registry; all accessed 5/18/2011 (Age-adjusted to US 2000 standard population)
Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates, 2003-2007 USANJEssex Co. Men All21.223.323.2 Black30.529.225.3 White20.623.4 Hispanic15.615.817.1 Women All14.916.717.8 Black21.022.022.8 White14.416.515.0 Hispanic10.510.111.4 All figures from NCI/CDC State Cancer Profiles web site, accessed 05/18/2011 05:35 PM All rates are age-adjusted to the US 2000 standard population
Stool Sample Tests for cancer –Collect stool samples & test for immuno- chemicals in blood or (with guaiac) for hidden (occult) blood; cancer can bleed! Flexible Sigmoidoscopy –Look only in the distal colon for lesions Colonoscopy –Look through the whole colon for lesions and remove any that could later turn into cancer. Thus, prevent cancer! Screening for Colon Cancer Preventing
Screening options for average risk patients Preferred: Tests that prevent cancer –Best: Colonoscopy at least every 10 years (research ongoing on how often) –Others: Flexible sigmoidoscopy or CT colonography or double contrast barium enema every 5 years (if either of latter two are positive, follow up with colonoscopy) Suboptimal: Tests that only detect cancer –Fecal immunochemical or Hemoccult Sensa (high sensitivity guaiac) every year –Fecal DNA every 3 years? Start at age 50. (American College of Gastroenterology recommends 45 for African Americans)
Colonoscopy – what it’s like Let’s be honest — prep is no fun, but also not painful! –Cleans you out completely! At time of exam, sedation makes you blissfully unaware of what’s going on. Not eating + sedation leaves you tired! Day off from work!
Colonoscopy sometimes not appropriate If patient can’t tolerate prep (also rules out CT colonography and DCBE); If patient’s condition is such that exam might be risky; If patient’s remaining life expectancy is too short (due to co-morbidities, etc.) to be worth risks and expense. (In such situations, can still use fecal blood tests — FIT or sensitive guaiac — &/or flex sig as second-best options.) Unsure? Discuss with your doctor!
Screening guidelines on the web US Preventive Services Task Force: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscolo.htm http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscolo.htm National Cancer Institute: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/screening/colon-and-rectal http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/screening/colon-and-rectal American Cancer Society: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/ColonandRectumCancer/MoreInformation /ColonandRectumCancerEarlyDetection/colorectal-cancer-early- detection-toc http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/ColonandRectumCancer/MoreInformation /ColonandRectumCancerEarlyDetection/colorectal-cancer-early- detection-toc American College of Gastroenterology: http://www.acg.gi.org/physicians/pdfs/CCSJournalPublicationFebruary20 09.pdf http://www.acg.gi.org/physicians/pdfs/CCSJournalPublicationFebruary20 09.pdf Comparison of 2008 ACS/USMSTF/ACR Guidelines with those of the USPSTF (from American Cancer Society): http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/InformationforHealthCareProfessionals/C olonMDClinicansInformationSource/ColorectalCancerScreeningandSurv eillanceGuidelines/comparison-of-colorectal-screening-guidelines http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/InformationforHealthCareProfessionals/C olonMDClinicansInformationSource/ColorectalCancerScreeningandSurv eillanceGuidelines/comparison-of-colorectal-screening-guidelines