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Talking to a lay audience about colon cancer screening Daniel M. Rosenblum, PhD Program Coordinator & Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Talking to a lay audience about colon cancer screening Daniel M. Rosenblum, PhD Program Coordinator & Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Talking to a lay audience about colon cancer screening Daniel M. Rosenblum, PhD Program Coordinator & Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine & Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, UMDNJ Co-coordinator, Essex County Cancer Coalition

2 Lifetime Invasive Colorectal Cancer Risks (Nationwide %) Race/Ethnicity Ever Getting Diagnosed Dying MenWomenMenWomen Black (includes Hispanic) 4.975.182.422.37 White (includes Hispanic) 5.404.982.172.00 Asian/Pacific Islander 5.545.032.121.96 Hispanic (can be any race) 5.214.432.091.81 Amer. Indian/Alaskan Native 3.734.901.891.50 2004-2006 data from SEER 17 areas

3 Probability of Being Diagnosed with Colorectal Cancer, NJ vs US Age Range Ever (Birth to Death) 0-3940-5960-79 Men US 0.08% (1/1250) 0.91% (1/110) 3.51% (1/28) 5.39% (1/19) NJ 0.08% (1/1184) 0.96% (1/104) 3.98% (1/25) 6.24% (1/16) Women US 0.08% (1/1250) 0.72% (1/139) 2.69% (1/37) 5.03% (1/20) NJ 0.09% (1/1096) 0.76% (1/131) 2.96% (1/34) 5.78% (1/17) 2004-2006 data from NJDHSS CES, accessed 05/18/2011

4 How does colorectal cancer compare to other cancer risks? Colorectal cancer is the third most common type diagnosed (first is prostate in men, breast in women, second is lung) Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death (first is lung, second is breast in women, prostate in men; fourth is pancreas)

5 Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates, 2003-2007 USANJEssex Co. Men All57.163.162.8 Black66.967.670.9 White56.163.259.0 Hispanic48.656.352.5 Non-Hispanic63.563.7 Women All42.446.347.4 Black50.752.653.3 White41.345.642.9 Hispanic34.539.432.6 Non-Hispanic46.849.0 National figures from CDC/NPCR US Cancer Statistics – An Interactive Atlas; NJ & Essex County figures from NJDHSS NJ Cancer Registry; all accessed 5/18/2011 (Age-adjusted to US 2000 standard population)

6 Colorectal Cancer Mortality Rates, 2003-2007 USANJEssex Co. Men All21.223.323.2 Black30.529.225.3 White20.623.4 Hispanic15.615.817.1 Women All14.916.717.8 Black21.022.022.8 White14.416.515.0 Hispanic10.510.111.4 All figures from NCI/CDC State Cancer Profiles web site, accessed 05/18/2011 05:35 PM All rates are age-adjusted to the US 2000 standard population

7 Digestive system © American Medical Association www.ama- pub/physician- resources/pati ent-education- materials/atlas -of-human- body/digestive

8 Stool Sample Tests for cancer –Collect stool samples & test for immuno- chemicals in blood or (with guaiac) for hidden (occult) blood; cancer can bleed! Flexible Sigmoidoscopy –Look only in the distal colon for lesions Colonoscopy –Look through the whole colon for lesions and remove any that could later turn into cancer. Thus, prevent cancer! Screening for Colon Cancer Preventing

9 Screening options for average risk patients Preferred: Tests that prevent cancer –Best: Colonoscopy at least every 10 years (research ongoing on how often) –Others: Flexible sigmoidoscopy or CT colonography or double contrast barium enema every 5 years (if either of latter two are positive, follow up with colonoscopy) Suboptimal: Tests that only detect cancer –Fecal immunochemical or Hemoccult Sensa (high sensitivity guaiac) every year –Fecal DNA every 3 years? Start at age 50. (American College of Gastroenterology recommends 45 for African Americans)

10 © Jeff Bacon; published in, 24 April 2007

11 Colonoscopy vs Flexible Sigmoidoscopy From MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine of the NIH © A.D.A.M.

12 Colon polyps From © American Gastroenterological Association

13 Snaring a polyp From the Mayo Clinic: © Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and A wire loop removes a colon polyp and cauterizes the stalk to prevent bleeding.

14 Colonoscopy – what it’s like Let’s be honest — prep is no fun, but also not painful! –Cleans you out completely! At time of exam, sedation makes you blissfully unaware of what’s going on. Not eating + sedation leaves you tired! Day off from work!

15 Dave Barry: A journey into my colon – and yours (first published February 22, 2008) “OK. You turned 50. You know you're supposed to get a colonoscopy. But you haven't. Here are your reasons: 1. You've been busy. 2. You don't have a history of cancer in your family. 3. You haven't noticed any problems. 4. You don't want a doctor to stick a tube 17,000 feet up your butt. “Let's examine these reasons one at a time. No, wait, let's not. Because you and I both know that the only real reason is No. 4. This is …” To read the rest of Dave Barry’s classic humorous retelling of his colonoscopy experience and learn why you should get a colonoscopy, go to barry-a-journey-into-my-colon.html ©2008 Dave Barry

16 Colonoscopy sometimes not appropriate If patient can’t tolerate prep (also rules out CT colonography and DCBE); If patient’s condition is such that exam might be risky; If patient’s remaining life expectancy is too short (due to co-morbidities, etc.) to be worth risks and expense. (In such situations, can still use fecal blood tests — FIT or sensitive guaiac — &/or flex sig as second-best options.) Unsure? Discuss with your doctor!

17 Screening guidelines on the web US Preventive Services Task Force: National Cancer Institute: American Cancer Society: /ColonandRectumCancerEarlyDetection/colorectal-cancer-early- detection-toc /ColonandRectumCancerEarlyDetection/colorectal-cancer-early- detection-toc American College of Gastroenterology: 09.pdf 09.pdf Comparison of 2008 ACS/USMSTF/ACR Guidelines with those of the USPSTF (from American Cancer Society): olonMDClinicansInformationSource/ColorectalCancerScreeningandSurv eillanceGuidelines/comparison-of-colorectal-screening-guidelines olonMDClinicansInformationSource/ColorectalCancerScreeningandSurv eillanceGuidelines/comparison-of-colorectal-screening-guidelines

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