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Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring 24.8.2007 1/52 Udviklingstendenser indenfor den digitale byggeproces. Per.

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Presentation on theme: "Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring 24.8.2007 1/52 Udviklingstendenser indenfor den digitale byggeproces. Per."— Presentation transcript:

1 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Udviklingstendenser indenfor den digitale byggeproces. Per Christiansson Aalborg University Det Digitale Byggeri. Baggrund og muligheder. Livslang Læring. Aalborg Universitet. Udviklingstendenser indenfor den digitale byggeproces. Per Christiansson Aalborg University Det Digitale Byggeri. Baggrund og muligheder. Livslang Læring. Aalborg Universitet.

2 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 CONTENT WHY? World - Systems - Models - ICT Systems User Environment and underlying Models Models and ontologies Process models and collaboration System development and evaluation ICT push and End-User pull Intelligent Buildings Education

3 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 WHY?

4 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -the building process is one of the most complex and less formalized applied processes -Building process actors using different ICT tools, languages and model formalisms with a rich spectrum of user interfaces with different characteristics -A very cross scientific domain. -Too little focus on building up it's own ICT competences (the out- sourcing trend increases the risk of loosen company business strategic knowledge). -Low client understanding that ICT pays back (better early decisions in alternative solutions, higher quality and better documented end products. The implementation in the building process has been rather slow due to A complex process

5 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 There is at present and in the future building industry a great need for persons who can take active part in specification, design, implementation, and evaluation of tomorrows building process support systems. A broad view and insight into the complex building process together with a broad and in some key areas deep knowledge into existing and coming ICT tools are required in combination. Competences needs

6 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Builders must process some ICT competences to be able to formulate needs, requirements, and perform usability evaluation as well as to actively participate in the (creative) design of tomorrows building process ICT tools. Competences needs

7 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -WORLD - SYSTEMS - MODELS - ICT SYSTEMS

8 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 The Building/City functional system view In the real world we identify activities, things, processes, context, and persons. The real world can be described as (interrelated) systems (no de-facto structure is available today) to accomplish different functions e.g. a comfort system to provide personal living and working quality, personal transport system, load carrying building system, escape system, and communication systems (collaboration, knowledge transfer, mediation, virtual meeting).

9 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 USER ENVIRONMENT and UNDERLYING MODELS

10 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 - Participants; number of, type (persons, agents - Collaboration subject/context & Form of interaction; design, reviews, purchase, learning, brainstorm, negotiation, discussion, - Communication content to support interaction; e.g. speech, sound, images, music, video, whisper, body language, 3D objects, control information;….. - Meeting spaces and room definitions; physical, virtual, static, dynamic, mobile and combinations. - Collaboration artefacts; communication channels, user applications, and information containers

11 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Building Process models development have during the latest decades had periodic focus on achieving a highly formalized non-redundant building product model, Virtual Building, VB

12 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 The complexity and flexibility in organization of the building process leads to large difficulties to build up highly formalized non-redundant models except for certain more standardized buildings and process organization The favorable degree of optimum formalization of the building process will be different context and dependent on which actors view it applied. There might be a negative correlation between effectiveness and flexibility for different representations. Degree of formalization

13 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 MODELS and ONTOLOGIES

14 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 ONTOLOGY - the branch of metaphysics dealing with the nature of being - An explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts, and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. DICTIONARY - a book that lists the words of a language in alphabetic order and gives their meaning, or that gives equivalent words in different language. CLASSIFICATION - The action or process of classifying something according to shared qualities or characteristics Definitions

15 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 The Digital Delivery example The newly released, January 2007, Danish digital construction requirements lets public clients put requirements on the content of the digital models of the building handed over to the client after finalised construction. (DDB, 2006)

16 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Bygningens systemer Relationerne mellem krav til bygningen, systemmodeller (fagspecifike) og komponentmodellen (bygningsdeler).

17 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 PROCESS MODELS AND COLLABORATION

18 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Remote lecture and application sharing between Aalborg and Lund Universities 1999 in teacher/secretary course (parallel ISDN based video communication and Internet based application Collaboration

19 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Virtual spaces A Virtual Space (VS) may be defined as a mixed reality environment optionally involving many physical spaces and many virtual spaces. A VS may be set-up within one building or many buildings placed in the local community or on the other side of the world. A VS do not have to be stationary but can e.g. follow a person defined as the immediate surrounding of that person. In this latter case wireless connection to the space is a necessity and maybe a complication in interaction with stationary spaces. A virtual space may provide service to support many kinds of activities. We may define virtual workspaces supporting collaboration, home health care space with access to distant doctors, different communities of interest or practice, virtual city space for service discovery and access etc. The impact on social behaviour, economics, and personal values due to virtual spaces introduction should continuously be monitored and taken into account.

20 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Organisational view on internal and external building project actors, activities and attached information containers. Organisational impact

21 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -Mix of physical and virtual workspaces (80/20 to 20/80, physical meetings will remain very important especially during non-routine activities). -New procedures (new companies?) to provide knowledge management support (e.g. long-term project information storage end experience transfer, company/building project education services). -Greater possibilities to back-up digital knowledge resources in the companies due to efficient capture and re-use of experiences and ideas. -Efficient handling of unstructured and partly redundant information. (The building process will for a foreseeable future contain semi-structured data together with information containers with highly formalised non-redundant data models). -Meta data in models containing non-redundant data on high abstraction levels will glue together domain specific more specialised application models. -Disconnection of building application semantics from underlying information containers will facilitate system interoperability and build-up of user specific search in and interrogation of underlying information containers. -Higher flexibility in creating project teams composed of persons from different companies ( the old ‘building master’). -Flexible collaboration patterns between and within teams. Organisational impact

22 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 ICT PUSH END-USER PULL

23 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 ICT (Information and Communication Technology) may be defined as the technologies to support capture, storage, manipulation, communication and delivery of information on different application levels (from macro to micro scale) and in different contexts such as technological, organisational, and cultural. What is ICT?

24 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Changing paradigm for information handling (information containers dynamically composed, everything stored in a wide range of formats). Separation of information content and access mechanisms. Digital models (virtual buildings, users/team, processes, ICT tools, production systems) of our reality and also non-physical objects are accessed from adapted and advanced user environments (UE). Web and html early 1990s. Now resources on the Internet, labelled by their Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), that can be described and reached through a common syntax and structure such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) and RDF Schema that give meaning to the web based information containers. New services and new not yet designed ICT tools ICT push

25 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Driving forces and trends The technology driving force has been significant in development of the Intelligent and Responsive Buildings and Intelligent Cities. Such as Moore's law spread and standardisation of Internet, increased bandwidth within Internet, communication standards development, embedded intelligence with sensors and actuators connection, New network services and service-oriented architectures (SOAP, WDSL, OGSA,..) We will see an increasing focus on ontology development as a necessary pre-requisite for services and ICT systems inter-operability. The Semantic Web has set new focus on ontology development. Ontologies in general today mainly support the technical service layers and to a lesser extent the business application layers. Virtual building (VB) models access is getting more standardised through use of the IFC standard, and will thereby be easier to integrate as a resource in IB service systems.

26 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Wireless networks with fibre based backbone Portable/ubiquitous units (computers, service/communication units) Many (flat panel/glasses/..) communication units (offices, building sites, homes) Embedded intelligence (installation components etc.) with Internet connectivity Peer-to-peer societies/interest-groups/’global’ villages Family/personal servers (personal storage of information/knowledge within physical reach) Manifold of parallel personalised/team/project market and service places XML tagged communication standards and Semantic Web. All information ('good' and 'bad') accessible through dynamic logical containers Virtual spaces for communication and learning Personal global positioning units (Per Christiansson 2000) Future ICT Tools

27 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Separation of storage and access media

28 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 ICT development - push We are in an intense period of development where we can do creative design of future user environments. High quality models of building products and processes can be used in augmented reality environments to make collaboration and 4D simulations more effective, supported by underlying models and efficient data transfer. VuMan 1991, CMU Digital Hardhat, UIUC, 1996 [wearLab] Bremen

29 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 "Technology "auction" designed to rank the candidate technologies in term of near-term perceived values". From (Wood & Alvarez, 2005) page 10. ICT developments 2/2 ICT development - push

30 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION

31 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -Define user involvement (often heavily underestimated) with regard to user needs and requirements capture, functional user environment design including computer user interface, and continuous end user evaluations -The traditional system efficiency, effectiveness (do the system solve the targeted objectives), and user friendliness (how well do the system meet user expectations on the system) must be evaluated during system development and implementation. -We have used Contextual Design methodology for formal process description to strengthen development documentations and communication between project participants. User Needs and Requirements Capture

32 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 The laboratory test facilities at Aalborg University. Laboratory system test and evaluation

33 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Craftsmen to the left Laboratory Tests 3/5 Laboratory system test and evaluation

34 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Ericsson T68i Mobile phone equipped with barcode reader scanning a laminated barcode sheet. Laboratory Tests 4/5 Laboratory system test and evaluation

35 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Ericsson T68i Mobile phone mounted on video stand for capture of mobile phone keyboard and screen. The video camera is wirelessly connected to video recording device. Laboratory Tests 5/5 Laboratory system test and evaluation

36 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 It is concluded from the project that small building construction firms' use of ICT tools in production still is limited. Some of the barriers recognized in the project are: -Limited understanding of possible achievements by using ICT tools. -Limited overview of possibilities and barriers. -Uncertainty regarding ICT implementation costs. -Poor connection between existing ICT systems. -Fear of being dependent on ICT tools. Main Conclusions 1/2 Main conclusions from ‘IT at construction site’ project 1/2

37 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -The companies shall be prepared for the change in ICT tools support, and are keen to hear from other companies' experiences. -Anticipated effects shall be described and evaluated to increase insight into investment goals -Collaboration between companies, system deliverer and university is necessary for efficient development and implementation of systems.(Increased end user involvement) -Knowledge transfer routines should be improved -System usability and interoperability must be improved including business ontology development. -Increased focus on education within IT in construction is needed. (The ongoing national Danish Digital Construction R&D program, DDB, will give important input to classification and use of building product and process models) Main Conclusions 2/2 Main conclusions from ‘IT at construction site’ project 2/2

38 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 End user needs and requirements capture, innovation A bSB, building Smart Buildings, platform will actively contribute to the building of smart buildings by providing mechanisms for idea generation and product/services development beyond inventions in isolation.

39 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

40 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Intelligent Building definition In 2000 the author made the following definition: "Intelligent buildings are buildings that through their physical design and IT installations are responsive, flexible and adaptive to changing needs from its users and the organisations that inhabit the building during its life time. The building will supply services for its inhabitants, its administration and operation & maintenance. The intelligent building will accomplish transparent 'intelligent' behaviour, have state memory, support human and installation systems communication, and be equipped with sensors and actuators." Some important characteristics be flexible and responsive to different usage and environmental contexts be able to change state (with long and short term memory) contain tenant, O&M, and administration service systems support human communication accomplish 'intelligent' behaviour and transparent intelligence Integrate different IB systems to form complex systems

41 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Intelligent Building history In 1982 AT&T establishes the concept "INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS" due to marketing reasons. The INFORMART building is erected in Dallas containing latest IB systems on display The Smart House Development USA (National Association of Home Builders, NAHB) 'Automated Buildings', 'High Tech. Buildings', and 'Smart Houses’ Services for sustainable performance Services for human/building interaction Services for health and well-being

42 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Intelligent Building history In 1986 we arranged a national Intelligent Office workshop at Lund University Sweden, where some still valid conclusions were drawn man/machine environment important, lack of knowledge, information vulnerability, flexibility requirements not fulfilled, too little holistic problem views, new building construction coordination and procurement forms needed, lack of standards.. Services announced around year 2000 by IB-system companies were typically - fire alarm, energy control, heating control, telephony/computer net, ventilation control, climate, surveillance, lightning, power, security, passage control, and automatic door functions.

43 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Intelligent communication layers Intelligent Building services may be directed towards 3 groups of people 1) residents/end users including end user external service providers, 2) operation & maintenance personnel, and 3) building/facility administration personnel.

44 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Intelligent Building history Around 10 years ago there started to be more focus on broader social and life-quality end-user aspects on services e.g. for example elderly/handicap living support, home health care, and home distant working. A number of protocols and network solutions to integrate more or less intelligent sensor/actuator control units have been developed LonWorks technology work starts (LON), Local Operating Network for IB systems, EIB, European Installation Bus, and later KNX (ISO/IEC 14543), BACnet, a Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks, OSGi, Open Service Gateway Initiative, ZigBee, Z-Wave ….. RFID (Radio-frequency identification)

45 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 The Building/City functional system view The virtual building can be used as interactive documentation of the ready building to support different services such as O&M activities, location of resources and persons in the building, and for simulation and design of new services and user environments. The building is more or less functionally integrated with other buildings, city areas, and optional global 'neighbourhoods'.

46 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Services Ontologies An ontology is an explicit formal specification of how to represent the objects, concepts and other entities that are assumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that hold among them. A service request may generate alternative support system actions depending on context and/or other parallel services requests. Worse case is that a critical service will invoke temporary close down of other services.

47 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 End user needs and requirements capture There is a great need today to secure development with below specified areas to secure smart buildings to meet future needs from end users and technology providers Systematic description of existing and future application/business services needs in terms of application domain, functionality, involved actors, organisation, and use contexts. Systematic description of existing and future available smart building/smart city services in terms of application domain, functionality, and use context. Systematic description of existing and future available resources that can support provided services. This is a complex design endeavour that well could be supported by a platform as suggested below, bSB - building Smart Buildings platform.

48 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 EDUCATION

49 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 -Students should understand overall implications of working with digital information (on personal, team, project, and company levels) and the properties of logic information containers properties and building product- and process models. -understand the ongoing change processes caused by ICT introduction and be able to actively participate in the design of next generation digital building process environments and ICT tools -acquire deep knowledge in how ICT can serve to integrate competences (also outside the engineering domain) and artefacts in the building process and how knowledge can be efficiently captured and transferred. Overall goals

50 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Building Informatics Learning Domains

51 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Multimedia and Knowledge Management course. Virtual Buildings course. Building informatics courses at term 7 and 8 in the Building Management education. Courses content example

52 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 References Christiansson P. (2007) "ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials", Proceedings 24th CIB W78 Conference "Bringing ICT knowledge to work". June , Maribor, Slovenia. ISBN (pp ). services use of underlying resources, service definitions, and service interoperability. Christiansson P, Svidt K (2006) Usability evaluation of mobile ICT support used at the building construction site.. Proceedings of the World IT Conference for Design and Construction, INCITE/ITCSED 2006, November 2006, New Delhi. ISBN (pp , Vol.1). Christiansson P, (2006) Kravmodel for det Det Digitale Byggeri. DACaPo kommentar. Det Digitale Byggeri. 30 maj DCS Technical Memorandum No. 4, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. ISSN (14 sid.) Christiansson P, Carlsen M (2005) Virtual Building from Theory to Practice. Proceedings W78 22nd Conference on Information Technology in Construction. (Edited by R.J. Scherer, P. Katranuschkov, S.-E. Schapke). Dresden July , ISBN: , CIB Publication No.: 304. (pp ). Christiansson P (2005) Building Management and Learning in Civil Engineering Education. Proceedings of the 2005 ASCE International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering. (Edited by Lucio Soibelman and Feniosky Peña- Mora). July 12-15, Cancun, Mexico. ISBN (CD), (Invited paper). (12 pp). Christiansson, P, 2003, "Next Generation Knowledge Management Systems for the Construction Industry". Auckland, New Zealand, April 23-25, CIB W78 Proceedings 'Construction IT Bridging the Distance. CIB Publication 284. ISBN (494 pages). (pp ).

53 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 END education/livslang/

54 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Document Classes Site Building O&M Economy PC Data opsamles for aflevering

55 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Required (bold) and optional objects of the DACaPo data model for digital handover. The DACaPo meta data for marking documents is based on ISO (Application of metadata for construction and facility management). DACaPo XML is also harmonized with IFC XML and OIO XML (Offentlig Information Online The DACaPo XML structure is developed in close contact with the International Alliance for Interoperability, IAI, international.org/index.html, to ensure harmonization with IFC. DACaPo data model

56 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 Three DACaPo XML schemas are defined (model, document, type). Stored on public repositories. Will support e.g. O&M peer-to-peer solutions. Document classes are Site, Building, O&M, and Economy Within document classes documents are defined with label document type (kind) according to representation form (degree of structure such as locked/unlocked, editable, file/object) and file format (TIF, PDF, DOC, XLS, RTF, XML, DWG, DGN, and IFC). DACaPo XML Schemes

57 Per Christiansson, Building Informatics. Aalborg University. Livslang læring /52 DACaPo Support Tool user interface. DACaPo Support Tool


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