Presentation on theme: "Lecture Notes for Verbal Reasoning Lesson 3 Strategies, Tactics, and Tips for reading the VR Passages according to Kaplan."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture Notes for Verbal Reasoning Lesson 3 Strategies, Tactics, and Tips for reading the VR Passages according to Kaplan
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Select a passage. Skip passages if necessary, but avoid wasting time. Don’t try to rank passages. Keep in mind many test-takers make more mistakes with topics in which they are familiar. Mistakenly rely on their own outside knowledge. Passages typically move from less difficult to more difficult.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Critically read the passage. Use keywords to help navigate the passage. Conclusion keywords identify opinions, especially central claims or the primary argument. Examples: therefore, wrong, must, conclude, perhaps, unhappy. Evidence keywords identify rationale, support or premises. Examples: because, illustrates, several reasons, due to. Contrast keywords identify a reversal or opposing shift in thought or opinion. Examples: but, rather, than, distinction, ironically, alternatively, in contrast, on the other hand, conversely, etc.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips According to Kaplan Critically read the passage (cont’d.) Emphasis keywords identify comparative importance or relevance. Examples: most of all, especially, only, primarily, occasionally, sometimes, etc. Sequence keywords identify an order at work. Examples: first, then, finally, moreover, before/after.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Paraphrasing—putting the content or idea of a passage into your own words. Put the main idea of each paragraph in your own words. Write this out in a short sentence or two. Use keywords to help you.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Topic, Scope, and Purpose Quickly figure out the broad subject matter, the specific focus, and the purpose of the passage. By the 1 st third-to-half of the passage you should have a fairly good idea of topic, scope, and purpose. Author’s purpose(s) includes(s) describing, analyzing, comparing, arguing, or rebutting. Two-thirds of VR passages reveal the main idea in the last paragraph. Half of VR passages involve main idea in the first paragraph.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Structure Look for a logical, consistent structure/organization to the writing based on author’s purpose. Passages are typically organized much like college essays or academic writing. Introduction—thesis—counter-thesis—synthesis—conclusion Passages can be excerpts from published work Might be missing an element of the pattern, which can make the passage more challenging.
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Critical analysis of arguments. Break down the argument to better comprehend the passage. Conclusion, premises, evidence, counter-arguments, refutations. Identify assumptions or warrants. What’s assumed? Deduction or unstated evidence. The connection between facts and opinion. Toulmin Argument A schema for analyzing argument
Strategies, Tactics, Tips according to Kaplan Critical Analysis of Arguments (Cont’d.) Be able to restate the argument in your own words. Determine facts from opinion first. Do not impose outside information on the argument. Avoid letting biases determine your analysis. Use keywords to separate fact from opinion. Use context to separate fact from opinion. An Example. My apartment is a mess. My refrigerator is empty. I haven’t done laundry in a month. I’m the world’s worst housekeeper. My apartment is a mess. The living room needs to be vacuumed. The sink is full of dishes. Dust clings to everything.