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LEARNING FROM ACADEMIC DISHONESTY JAMES M. Cheating Lessons.

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Presentation on theme: "LEARNING FROM ACADEMIC DISHONESTY JAMES M. Cheating Lessons."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEARNING FROM ACADEMIC DISHONESTY JAMES M. Cheating Lessons

2 The Failures of Cheating An Ethical Failure by the Student A Failure of Communication A Failure in the Teaching/ Learning Transaction

3 Searching for Princess Alice

4 Thesis Dan Ariely: the amount of dishonesty in which people are willing to engage “depends on the structure of our daily environment.” The amount of cheating in which students are willing to engage depends (in part) on the structure of the learning environment.

5 Learning Environments that Induce Cheating  Motivation is Extrinsic  Orientation toward Performance  Infrequent, High-Stakes Assessments  Low Self-Efficacy  Cheating Perceived as Common and Approved by Peers

6 The Cognitive Turn “Much of what we’ve been doing as teachers and students isn’t serving us well, but some comparatively simple changes could make a big difference.” Brown, Roediger, McDaniel Make it Stick (Harvard UP, 2014)

7 FREQUENT FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT AND THE GROWTH MINDSET Making the Case to Faculty

8 Frequent Assessment  “The Critical Importance of Retrieval for Learning” Test and Study80% Test but NO Study80% NO Test OR Study33% Study but NO Test35% Karpicke and Roediger Science

9 Short Answer Questions 30-Day Recall Test: Art History Lectures  No Activity20%  Focused Study36%  Multiple Choice36%  Short Answer47%

10 Transience “When information has not been used for longer and longer periods of time, it becomes less and less likely that it will be needed in the future... our memory systems have picked up on this... and in essence made a bet that when we haven't used information recently, we probably won't need it in the future.” Daniel Schacter The Seven Sins of Memory

11 Limits of Memory “In long-term-memory the limiting factor is not storage capacity, but rather the ability to find what you need when you need it. Long-term memory is rather like having a vast amount of closet space—it is easy to store many items, but it is difficult to retrieve the needed item in a timely fashion.” Michelle Miller College Teaching

12 Transience Redux  “Memories... are encoded by modifications in the strengths of connections among neurons. When we experience an event or acquire a new fact, complex chemical changes occur at the junctions—synapses— that connect neurons with one another. Experiments indicate that with the passage of time, these modifications can dissipate... Unless strengthened by subsequent retrieval and recounting, the connections become so weak that recall is eventually precluded. Daniel Schacter The Seven Sins of Memory

13 The Minute Paper “When I first implemented this technique I was surprised at how very simple questions would still reveal misconceptions or misunderstandings in a significant proportion of the students. Even after classes in which I felt I had explained something very well and thoroughly, there were students for whom the answer to the assessment was not obvious.” Brian J. Rogerson Journal of Chemical Education 80.2

14 The Minute Paper How many significant figures are there in the following measurements? a) L b) 5.5 x 104 km c) 10.0 ns d) g Give two reasons why K is more reactive than Li. Why is it that AlCl3 is the empirical formula of the ionic compound made up of aluminum ions and chloride ions? Why not AlCl, AlCl5, or Al2Cl?

15 The Minute Paper Course Condition Failure/Dropout % Control sections34.5 Minute paper sections16.7 “[S]ome comparatively simple changes could make a big difference.” Make it Stick

16 The Trump Card In addition to learning, course evaluations improved: Course ConditionHighest Course Rating % Control Sections50 “Minute Paper” sections68.1

17 Self-Efficacy FixedGrowth

18 Mindset and Cheating “In one study, seventh graders told us how they would respond to an academic failure—a poor test grade in a new course. Those with the growth mindset... said they would study harder for the next test. But those with the fixed mindset said they would study less... And, they said, they would seriously consider cheating.” Carol Dweck Mindset (2006)

19 International Students Fixed: “You have a certain amount of intelligence, and you can’t really do much to change it.” Growth: “You can always substantially change how intelligent you are.” “Those with the fixed mindset didn’t want to expose their deficiencies... to feel smart in the short run, they were willing to put their college careers at risk.” Mindset

20 Teaching for Growth Praise EffortLearning as EffortfulStudy StrategiesSuccess Strategies

21 Final Thought “Dishonesty reveals flaws in the very way science is taught.” David Pritchard MIT


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