Presentation on theme: "History of the Caribbean"— Presentation transcript:
1 History of the Caribbean Wednesday 13 April 2011
2 Prayer to the Holy Spirit O Holy Spirit, soul of my soulI adore you.Enlighten, guide, strengthen and console me.Tell me what I ought to do and command me to do it.I promise to submit to everything that you ask of meand to accept all that you allow to happen to me.Only show me what is your will.
3 Examinations Prayer to St. Joseph of Cupertino O Great St. Joseph of Cupertino who while on earth did obtain from God the grace to be asked at your examination only the questions you knew, obtain for me a like favour in the examinations for which I am now preparing.In return I promise to make you known and cause you to be invoked.Through Christ our Lord. St. Joseph of Cupertino, Pray for us.Our Lady of Good Studies pray for meSacred Head of Jesus, Seat of divine wisdom, enlighten me. Amen.
4 The Farmer's Problem (D4) Farmer John had a problem. There were a group of brigands that had taken all he had... except for three things: his prized wolf, his goat, and a box of cabbages. They were coming after him, to get the rest. These brigands did not like water, so John went to the Blue River, a deep, fast river that no one could swim, and it had no bridges. He always kept a boat there, because he liked to fish, but it was small. So small, in fact, that he and only one of his precious things could be in the boat at the same time.It sounds simple, right? Ferry one item across at a time, and come back for the others? Well, if John leaves the goat with the cabbages alone on one side of the river the goat will eat the cabbages. If he leaves the wolf and the goat on one side the wolf will eat the goat. If john is there, only he can seperate the wolf from the goat and the goat from the cabbage.How can farmer John keep his possessions safe from the brigands, without losing a single one?solution
5 The Farmer's Problem (D4) SOLUTION There are two solutions:Solution A: 1) John takes the goat to the other side, and leaves it there. 2) He then takes the wolf to the other side. 3) He brings the goat back. 4) He takes the cabbages across, leaving them with the wolf. 5) John Comes back for the goat.Solution B: 1) John takes the goat to the other side, and leaves it there. 2) He then takes the cabbages to the other side. 3) He brings the goat back. 4) He takes the wolf across, leaving it with the cabbages. 5) John comes back for the goat.
6 Review question:If a revolution can be defined as “A forcible overthrow of a government or social order for a new system” ...Can the coming into power of the Castro government in be considered a revolution?Support your answer.
7 Organising your answer Thesis statement: yes it can be considered a revolution because 1. The use of force 2, a new system came into place. Economic policies and social policies. Socialism. Change from US domination socialist state.How Castro came into power.Economics—policies and actions affecting the economy—land, industry, farming, working conditionsSocial changes actions affecting education, health, housing.Conclusion to show that Cuba was socialist state as a result of Castro coming into power.
8 Objectives Describe the policies of the Castro revolution Assess the United States’ response to the Castro revolution, 1959 to 1962Explain the impact on the Caribbean of the Castro revolution between 1959 and 1985
9 Pair-share activityYou are the manager of a US owned sugar plantation.Prepare a brief statement either agreeing with OR condemning the nationalisation of all business firms and large farms in Cuba.Give at least one reason for your point of view.Make a brief speech for the group (3 minutes).
11 outline Political and economic embargo Ideological warfare Military interventionInternational pressure
12 outline Political and economic embargo Ideological warfare Military interventionInternational pressure
13 Trade embargoThe United States organized a partial embargo on trade with Cuba in late 1960 and expanded it to a full embargo in early 1962.The embargo made it illegal to import goods from Cuba to the United States, or to export to Cuba any products that were manufactured or had parts that were manufactured in the United States.The result was severe shortages of consumer goods in Cuba within a few years.
14 Effects of trade embargo Cuba lost US market for its goodsTourismSugar, tobacco and other agricultural productsShe lost a source of many goods and capital (money to start businesses)Equipment and machinery to run factories and agricultural enterprisesFood and other consumer goodsResult: ShortagesHigher pricesForced to seek other marketsDrove Cuba even more into economic ties with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). Russia was the main republic.Cuba became more and more socialist as a result.Dependence on the USA dependence on the USSR esp. Russia
15 Political embargo The US broke off all diplomatic relations with Cuba No embassiesUSA discouraged other countries from having a relationship with Cuba The OAS broke off relations with Cuba as a resultOther Caribbean countries as wellThe USA welcomed Cubans who did not accept the changes in Cuba to enter as political refugees.
16 What accounted for the US’ negative reaction to Changes in Cuba after 1959? Policies that affected US investments and businesses, which the US did not likeAmericans lost money.The USA did not like the ideology of socialism/communismThey did not like that Cuba was becoming a socialist state, and what this meant.This was the era (time in history) of the Cold War.
17 Capitalism vs. Socialism (ideology) Capitalism says...Property should be owned by individuals (private property) including businessesDemocracy is the best way to run a country. People are free to choose their leaders throughfree electionsFreely organised political parties.Religious and other freedomsSocialism says...The state (govt) should own (all) property not individualsThe state and the ruling party can decide everything for the people.No need for other political partiesNo need for elections orWe tell you who to vote for.The Churches and other groups must be subject to or controlled by the state.
18 “The United States government responded to its worries about Cuba’s new government in several ways. Many U.S. officials felt that Castro’s regime needed to beoverthrown, and several different plans were formulated. Many of these were on a covert level and the general public was not aware of them at the time. ”
19 em·bar·go/em.bärgō/Verb: Impose an official ban on (trade or a country or commodity).Noun: An official ban on trade or other commercial activity or diplomatic relations with a particular country.Wikipedia.org
21 Why did the USA respond negatively to the Castro Revolution? EconomicsIdeologyCuban emigresPolitics
22 What were some of the ways in which the US reacted to Castro’s revolution EmbargoBay of Pigs InvasionMissile Crisis
23 Role of ideology Capitalism vs. communism Rejection of socialism Reaction to spread of socialismHow socialism affected investments
24 Role of politics and defence issues: The Cold War
25 The cold war made simple WWII a “hot war” direct fighting between USA, Russia, Britain, France on one side against Germany and Japan on the other.At the end of the War, Europe was divided betweenAreas occupied (liberated from Germany) by Britain and US which set up capitalist and democratic governments (Western Europe)Areas occupied by Russia, which set up socialist governments (like her own)The USA was unhappy about the setting up of socialist states in Eastern Europe.Russia was willing to help any nation that wanted to become a socialist state, including Western Europe.
26 The cold war (continued) The Cold War between the USA and Soviet Russia is called “cold” because the USA and Soviet Russia never directly fought each other.But there was conflict.How it was “fought”Russia supported socialist groups who were fighting for power e.g. Mozambique, Angola.Russia supported governments that chose socialism, e.g. Cuba (and Grenada in 1979)USA used military intervention, covert activities (spying and agents) to prevent socialist takeover or overthrow socialist governments.Both sides spent money, provided arms, and waged wars of propaganda against each other and against their opposing ideologies.“Proxy wars” e.g. Korean War, struggles in Mozambique and Angola where USA and Russia backed different sides.
27 The Bay of Pigs invasion Kennedy was very concerned about getting rid of the Cuban issue. He knew that as long as Castro remained in Havana, as long as a communist regime was allowed to flower, he would have a very bad domestic political problem. In 1961 the CIA came to him and said that Eisenhower had ordered them to plan for an invasion of Cuba. In retrospect the plans for the invasion look a little bit silly… more. See alsoA group of Cuban counter-revolutionaries, members of Assault Brigade 2506, after their capture in the Bay of Pigs. 1,000 people were imprisoned by Castro's forces during the US supported invasion
28 The Cuban Missile Crisis The closest the world has come to nuclear war was the Cuban Missile Crisis of October The Soviets had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States. U.S. armed forces were at their highest state of readiness. Soviet field commanders in Cuba were authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if invaded by the U.S. The fate of millions literally hinged upon the ability of two men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, to reach a compromise…. more