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Earth Science Chapter 1-2. 1.Lithosphere 2.Hydrosphere 3.Atmosphere 4.Biosphere The Four Great Realms.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science Chapter 1-2. 1.Lithosphere 2.Hydrosphere 3.Atmosphere 4.Biosphere The Four Great Realms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science Chapter 1-2

2 1.Lithosphere 2.Hydrosphere 3.Atmosphere 4.Biosphere The Four Great Realms


4 Atmosphere The layer of gases that surround and form an envelope around the Earth. –Consists of several gases Nitrogen – 78% Oxygen – 21% CO2, H2O, others – 1%

5 Lithosphere Earth's solid, rocky outer layer –The continents, islands and ocean floors

6 Hydrosphere All of the water present on the planet –Oceans, lakes, streams, ice caps, snow, glaciers, etc.

7 Biosphere That area of the land, water and air that contains life!

8 Litho = solid rock Atmos = air Hydro = water Bio = Life Sphere = round


10 1. To which sphere do all of earth’s inhabitants belong? 2. What is earth’s hydrosphere made of? 3. Where is water in the gaseous state found? 4. To which sphere do mountains, valleys, and other pieces of land belong?

11 Which earth systems interact for following – 1.Glaciers carved Yosemite valley 2. Most of California’s earthquakes are caused by movement of rocks along the San Andreas Fault System 3. Many of the mudslides in northern California occur when snow melts

12 4.Sequoias and redwoods grow in some of the forests in California 5.The Pacific Ocean borders western California 6.Death Valley is one of the hottest, driest places on earth

13 Energy Transfer Moving object Waves electromagnetic waves Heat flow – heat flows from a warmer object to a colder object

14 Branches of Earth Science Geology – geo = earth Meteorology Environmental Science

15 The Earth’s Surface Topography: The shape of the land. The topography of an area includes the area's elevation, relief, and landforms.

16 Elevation - Relief Elevation -height above sea level Relief - difference between the highest and the lowest points of an area

17 Landforms 3 main types: Plains mountains plateaus

18 Plains: made up of flat or gently rolling land with low relief Coastal plains Interior plains

19 Mountains: made up of high elevation and high relief. Mountain range: Group of mountains closely related in shape, structure, and age Mountain System: Different ranges in an area

20 Mountain Belt: Mountain ranges and Mountain systems in a long connected chain Plateaus: high elevation and a more or less level surface

21 LandformElevationRelief PlainLow MountainHigh PlateausHighLow

22 Earth’s Grid – Equator & Prime Meridian Prime Meridian goes through Greenwich, England Equator is half way between the North & South pole

23 Latitude & Longitude Latitude: the distance north or south of the equator Longitude: the distance east or west of the prime meridian

24 Both latitude & longitude are measured in degrees

25 Latitude & Longitude


27 Topographic Maps

28 They provide information on the elevation, relief, and slope of the ground surface

29 Reading a Topo Map Contour lines –Thin lines that connect points of equal elevation.

30 Contour interval Spaces between the contour lines. It shows the change in elevation from contour line to contour line.

31 Index contour Thick, darker lines, usually every fifth contour line.

32 Interpreting Contour Lines Closely spaced contour lines indicate steep slopes. Widely spaced contour lines are used for gentle slopes or flatter areas.

33 Closed loop with no other contour lines inside it indicates a hilltop. V-shaped contour lines pointing uphill indicate a valley. V-shaped contour lines pointing downhill indicate a ridge.

34 A closed loop with dashes inside – a depression or hollow in the ground

35 Making a Topo Map

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