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Earth Science Chapter 1-2.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science Chapter 1-2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science Chapter 1-2

2 The Four Great Realms Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere


4 Atmosphere The layer of gases that surround and form an envelope around the Earth. Consists of several gases Nitrogen – 78% Oxygen – 21% CO2, H2O, others – 1%

5 Lithosphere Earth's solid, rocky outer layer
The continents, islands and ocean floors

6 Hydrosphere All of the water present on the planet
Oceans, lakes, streams, ice caps, snow, glaciers, etc.

7 Biosphere That area of the land, water and air that contains life!

8 Litho = solid rock Atmos = air Hydro = water Bio = Life Sphere = round


10 1. To which sphere do all of earth’s inhabitants belong. 2
1. To which sphere do all of earth’s inhabitants belong? 2. What is earth’s hydrosphere made of? 3. Where is water in the gaseous state found? 4. To which sphere do mountains, valleys, and other pieces of land belong?

11 Glaciers carved Yosemite valley
Which earth systems interact for following – Glaciers carved Yosemite valley 2. Most of California’s earthquakes are caused by movement of rocks along the San Andreas Fault System 3. Many of the mudslides in northern California occur when snow melts

12 Sequoias and redwoods grow in some of the forests in California
The Pacific Ocean borders western California Death Valley is one of the hottest, driest places on earth

13 Energy Transfer Moving object Waves electromagnetic waves
Heat flow – heat flows from a warmer object to a colder object

14 Branches of Earth Science
Geology – geo = earth Meteorology Environmental Science

15 The Earth’s Surface Topography: The shape of the land. The topography of an area includes the area's elevation, relief, and landforms.

16 Elevation - Relief Elevation -height above sea level
Relief - difference between the highest and the lowest points of an area

17 Landforms 3 main types: Plains mountains plateaus

18 Plains: made up of flat or gently rolling land with low relief
Coastal plains Interior plains

19 Mountains: made up of high elevation and high relief.
Mountain range: Group of mountains closely related in shape, structure, and age Mountain System: Different ranges in an area

20 Mountain Belt: Mountain ranges and Mountain systems in a long connected chain
Plateaus: high elevation and a more or less level surface

21 Landform Elevation Relief Plain Low Mountain High Plateaus

22 Earth’s Grid – Equator & Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian goes through Greenwich, England Equator is half way between the North & South pole

23 Latitude & Longitude Latitude: the distance north or south of the equator Longitude: the distance east or west of the prime meridian

24 Both latitude & longitude are measured in degrees

25 Latitude & Longitude


27 Topographic Maps

28 They provide information on the elevation, relief, and slope of the ground surface

29 Reading a Topo Map Thin lines that connect points of equal elevation.
Contour lines Thin lines that connect points of equal elevation.

30 It shows the change in elevation from contour line to
Contour interval Spaces between the contour lines. It shows the change in elevation from contour line to contour line.

31 Thick, darker lines, usually every fifth contour line.
Index contour Thick, darker lines, usually every fifth contour line.

32 Interpreting Contour Lines
Closely spaced contour lines indicate steep slopes. Widely spaced contour lines are used for gentle slopes or flatter areas.

33 Closed loop with no other contour lines inside it indicates a hilltop.
V-shaped contour lines pointing uphill indicate a valley. V-shaped contour lines pointing downhill indicate a ridge.

34 A closed loop with dashes inside – a depression or hollow in the ground

35 Making a Topo Map

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