7 The difference between highest and lowest points of an area is its Relief
8 A landform is a feature of topography formed by processes that shape the Earth’s surface.
9 There are 3 main types of landforms. Plains are landforms with flat or gently rolling land of low relief.
10 Mountains are landforms with high elevation and high relief. A range of mountains is a group of mountains that are closely related in shape, structure, and age.
11 A plateau is a landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface (low relief). And now for something completely different…
12 II. The Earth’s Four Spheres LithosphereAtmosphereHydrosphereBiosphere
13 LithosphereAs you know, the lithosphere is the Earth’s solid, rocky outer layer, floating on the liquid mantle.
14 Atmosphere – The layer of gases surrounding our planet The outermost sphere is made up of: nitrogen (78%) oxygen (21%) argon (.93%) carbon dioxide (.036%) …and other trace gases.Water vapor also plays an enormous role in the Earth’s atmosphere.
15 HydrosphereEarth’s oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice form the Hydrosphere.
16 BiosphereAll living things make up the biosphere, which is found in each of the other spheres.