Read Section 1 – Exploring Earth’s Surface (page 34 – 38) Think about these questions before you read: 1.What does the topography of an area include? 2.What are the main types of landforms? Key Terms: Topography Elevation Relief Landform Plain Mountain Mountain range Plateau Landform regions Hand-out “Guided Reading and Study Guide”
Page 34 – In your own words: Tell us about the expedition from St. Louis in 1804…. TOPOGRAPHY is the shape of the land. An area’s topography may be flat, sloping, hilly or mountainous. Topography of an area includes the area’s elevation, relief, and landforms. 1. ELEVATION: The height above sea level of a point on Earth’s surface is its elevation. When Lewis and Clark started in St. Louis they were about 140 meters above sea level. By the time they reached the Rocky Mountains they were more than 2,200 meters above sea level!
2. RELIEF The difference in elevation between the hightest and lowest parts of an area is its relief. Lewis and Clark encountered flat or rolling land with low relief, or small differences in elevation. In the Rocky Mountains, they crossed huge mountains separated by deep valleys. These areas had high relief, or great differences in elevation. 3.LANDFORMS a feature of topography, such as a hill or valley, formed by the processes that shape Earth’s surface. Checkpoint: What is the difference between elevation and relief? Elevation is the height of an area above sea level. Relief is the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area.
TYPES OF LANDFORMS 1.PLAINS A plain is a landform made up of nearly flat or gently rolling land with low relief. Coastal Plain a plain that lies along a seacoast (low elevation and low relief) Interior Plain A plain that lies away from the coast (low relief but elevation can vary) Video – Discovery Science – Geography Principles: Maps and Globes? A Thorough Understanding
2. MOUNTAINS A mountain is a landform with high elevation and high relief. Mountain Range – A group of mountians that are closely related in shape, structure, and age. 3.PLATEAUS A landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface. The top of a plateau forms a level surface. Video – Discovery Science: Geography of the World: North America: Land and Resources
LANDFORM REGIONS A large area of land where the topography is made up mainly of one type of landform is called the landform region.
Section 2 – Models of Earth Lab Zone: How Can you Flatten the Curved Earth? 1.Using a felt-tip pen, make a rough sketch of the outlines of the continents on the surface of an orange. 2.Using a plastic knife, carefully peel the orange. If possible, keep the peel in one large piece so that the continents remain intact. 3.Try to lay the pieces of orange peel flat on a table. What happens to the continents when you try to flatten the pieces? Is there any way to keep the shape of the continents from being distorted? Brief history on page 39 – Read in small groups.
Handout – “Guided Reading and Study” MAPS AND GLOBES A map is a flat model of all or part of Earth’s surface as seen from above. A globe is a sphere that represents Earth’s entire surface. A globe correctly shows the relative sixe, shape, and position of landmasses and bodies of water.. Like you are viewing it from space. Maps and globes are drawn to scale and use symbols to represent topography and other features on Earth’s surface. Scale – related distance on a map to a distance on Earth’s surface. It’s usually a ratio (ex. One unit on a map might = 25,000 units on the ground. Symbols are used by mapmakers. Shapes and pictures show features of the Earth (river, lake, mountain or plain) Key – or LEGEND is the list of all the symbols used on the map. Map page 40
AN EARTH REFERENCE SYSTEM Our Earth is a sphere, the grid curves to cover the entire planet. Two of the lines that make up the grid, the equator and prime meridian, are the baselines for measuring distances on Earth’s surface. Equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern hemisphere. (A HEMISPHERE is one half of the sphere that makes up the earth’s surface) Prime Meridian runs from the north pole to the south pole dividing the earth into Eastern and Western Hemipsheres. Video
Measuring in Degrees – Degrees – The units used to locate positions on the earth. LOCATING POINTS ON EARTH’S SURFACE Lines of LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE form a grid that can be used to find locations anywhere on Earth. LATITUDE – Degrees north and south of the equator (Equator = 0 degrees) LONGITUDE – Degrees east and west of the prime meridian. Video: BrainPop Video: BrainPop Video
1.Is it possible to walk around the world, crossing all 360 degrees of longitude, in less than a minute? If so, where? Answer – It is possible to walk around 360 degrees of longitude at the poles. If a pole were planted at the South Pole, one could simple walk a small circle around the pole. 2.Is it possible to walk across all lines of latitude? Answer – No – One would have to walk from the North Pole to the South Pole or vice versa. 3. One plane is flying around the world at 30 degrees N latitude, and another plane is flying around the world at 40 degrees N latitude – Which plane must travel farther? Answer – The plane at 30 degrees N latitude
Map Projections: A MAP PROJECTION s a framework of lines that help in transfering points on Earth’s three-dimensional surface onto a flat map. Three types: 1.MERCATOR PROJECTION – All the lines of latitude and longitude appear as straight, parallel lines that form a rectangle (highly distorted at the poles) 2.EQUAL – AREA PROJECTION Correctly shows the relative sizes of Earth’s landmasses. 3.CONIC PROJECTION longitude lines appear straight while lines of latitude are curved (page 47 in book)
A Borderline Case (Handout) PROBLEM: Which was more important in locating state borders: lines of latitude and longitude or physical features? PAGE 48 IN TEXTBOOK
CHAPTER 2 / SECTION 3 – MAPS AND COMPUTERS Page COMPUTER MAPPING: - With computers, mapmakers can store, process, an display map data electronically Sources of Map Data – 1. Satellite Images Pixels 2. Data From the Global Positioning System (GPS) Video: BrainPop - GPS
2.SYMBOLS 3.INTERPERTING COUTOUR LINES Who and why are topographical maps used???
Chapter 2 – Section 4 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Discovery Activity – Can a Map Show Relief? (Handout / LAB) 1.Compare the stack of cardboard pieces with your drawing. How are they alike? How are they different? 2.If the cardboard pieces are a model of a landform, what do the lines on the paper represent? A TOPOGRAPHIC MAP is a map showing the surface features of an area. These maps provide us with accurate information on elevation, relief, and slope of the ground surface. Contour Lines are used to connect points of equal elevations. The contour interval is the change from one line to another. Reading a Topographic Map Familiarize yourself with the map’s scale and symbols and how to interpret the map’s contour lines. (PAGE 56 IN TEXTBOOK) 1.SCALE -