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Ab-initio simulations of matter at extreme conditions: a window into the centers of planets Sandro Scandolo (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) Seminario Galileiano,

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Presentation on theme: "Ab-initio simulations of matter at extreme conditions: a window into the centers of planets Sandro Scandolo (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) Seminario Galileiano,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ab-initio simulations of matter at extreme conditions: a window into the centers of planets Sandro Scandolo (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) Seminario Galileiano, Pisa 29/04/2010

2 Scandolo & Jeanloz, American Scientist 2003 Scandolo & Jeanloz, American Scientist (2003)

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4 DiamondGraphite

5 Materials SciencePlanetary Science High pressure in 1951: the first man- made diamonds 1991: Earth’s core conditions reproduced in the laboratory Physics 1935: prediction of metallic hydrogen

6 Shock wavesDiamond anvil cell

7 Scandolo & Jeanloz, American Scientist (2003)

8 Quantum simulations: The “standard model” H  E  Schroedinger equation for electrons “Molecular dynamics” for atoms Ma = F = -dE/dR e - -e - interactions: Density Functional Theory e - -nuclei interactions: Pseudopotentials “Ab-initio” molecular dynamics = Classical molecular dynamics in the potential energy surface generated by the electrons in their quantum ground state Electron charge density in SiO 2 stishovite R. Cohen

9 Quantum ESPRESSO is an open-source suite of computer codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling. It is based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials. Features include: structural optimizations, dielectric and Raman tensors phononsinfrared spectra elastic constantsNMR spectra ab-initio molecular dynamicsetc… “First-principles codes for computational crystallography in the Quantum-ESPRESSO package” S. Scandolo et al., Z. Kristallogr. 220, 574 (2005) Asian-Pacific School, Beijing, July 2004

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11 Water and methane at planetary conditions

12 60% molar fraction

13 phase diagram of water from first principles C. Cavazzoni et al., Science 283, 44 (1999) Experimental confirmation (?) of superionic phase: A. Goncharov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. (2006)

14 Superionic Water P = 150 GPa T = 2500 K Proton diffusion by hopping Oxygen sublattice remains crystalline C. Cavazzoni et al., Science 283, 44 (1999)

15 H 2 O+CH 4 +NH 3 Marvin Ross, “Diamonds in the sky” Nature (1981) Methane was found to dissociate under a shock wave Scandolo & Jeanloz, American Scientist (2003)

16 Dissociation of methane at extreme (planetary) conditions F. Ancilotto et al., Science 275, 1288 (1997) Compressed methane after heating to 4000 K L.R. Benedetti et al., Science 283, 100 (1999)

17 92% molar fraction

18 CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions 92% of the Uranus and Neptune ice layer Fluid inclusions, abiogenic formation of methane Prototype of hydrophobic interactions How corrosive is ionized water? Methane hydrate clathrates SIMULATIONS: 26 CH H 2 O at 4 different P-T

19 CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions Choice of P-T points on the water phase diagram CH 4 / H 2 O

20 CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions Radial distribution functions

21 CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions Softening of the C—O intermolecular potential

22 M.-S. Lee and S. Scandolo, in preparation C...O distance about 3 A C-H bond becomes more ionic with increasing pressure Increased ionicity and thermal disorder cause CH 4 to acquire a significant instantaneous dipole moment (about 0.5 D at 15 GPa) Maximally localized molecular orbitals (Wannier functions) CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions Distortion of CH 4 at 15 GPa

23 Methane / water mixture at 50 GPa Fast proton diffusion by proton hopping between adjacent molecules Methane “attacked” by ionized water Occasional formation of C-O bonds No formation of longer hydrocarbons (C-C bonds) M.-S. Lee and S. Scandolo, In preparation

24 CH 4 / H 2 O mixtures at extreme conditions Metallic behavior at milder conditions than pure water

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26 >90% molar fraction

27 E. Wigner and H.B. Huntington “On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydrogen” J. Chem. Phys. 3, 764 (1935) Hemley and Mao, Rev Mod Phys

28 ?

29 At which depth does hydrogen become an electrical conductor? Is metallization accompanied by a sharp density change? ?

30 Molecular to non-molecular transition S. Scandolo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003

31 Is there a first-order phase transition inside Jupiter/Saturn? Jupiter/Saturn isentrope S. Scandolo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003

32 Down to Earth…

33 How hot is the centre of the Earth? liquid solid Inner core (solid Fe) Outer core (liquid Fe) Mantle The temperature at the inner core boundary coincides with the melting temperature of Fe at 330 GPa

34 A number of mineral physics phenomena are difficult to address or even beyond reach for first-principles simulations, because of time scale and size limitations. Examples include thermal conductivity highly viscous silicate melts melting temperatures (some aspects of) rheological properties at high T etc…

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36 The “optimized” potential method “Optimized” potential at P,T A. Laio et al, Science 287, 1027 (2000)

37 P. Tangney and S. Scandolo JCP 117, 8898 (2002)

38 Inner-Outer core boundary A. Laio et al, Science 287, 1027 (2000) Our results Shock wave experiments Static experiments DFT-based calculation by Alfe’ et al Liquid Fe Solid Fe How hot is the Earth’s core?

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40 D. Stevenson, Nature 423, 239 (2003)

41 Thanks to: M.-S. Lee M. Fontana L. Giacomazzi J. Christie Y. Liang ICTP A. Young A. Hernandez Nieves J. Montoya R. Rousseau C. Miranda P. Tangney A. Laio S. Serra E. Tosatti SISSA F. Tassone G. Profeta L’Aquila R. Car X. Wang Princeton...and a countless number of experimentalists...


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