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Intermolecular Forces and

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Presentation on theme: "Intermolecular Forces and"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intermolecular Forces and
Liquids and Solids Chapter 11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 A phase is a homogeneous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary. 2 Phases Solid phase - ice Liquid phase - water

3 Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules. Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule. Intermolecular vs Intramolecular 41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water (inter) 930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water (intra) “Measure” of intermolecular force boiling point melting point DHvap DHfus DHsub Generally, intermolecular forces are much weaker than intramolecular forces.

4 Intermolecular Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid

5 Intermolecular Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule Ion-Dipole Interaction

6 Interaction Between Water and Cations
in solution

7 Intermolecular Forces
Dispersion Forces Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules ion-induced dipole interaction dipole-induced dipole interaction

8 Induced Dipoles Interacting With Each Other

9 Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bond The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond and an electronegative O, N, or F atom. A H B or A & B are N, O, or F

10 11.2 Which of the following can form hydrogen bonds with water?

11 11.2

12 11.1 What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between the following pairs? HBr and H2S Cl2 and CBr4 I2 and NH3 and C6H6

13 *Like different TV channel packages
Total attraction premium Hydrogen bond Dipole-dipole Dispersion *Like different TV channel packages basic

14 van der Waals forces Dipole-dipole Dipole-induced dipole Dispersion

15 Intermolecular Forces
Dispersion Forces Continued Polarizability is the ease with which the electron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distorted. Polarizability increases with: greater number of electrons more diffuse electron cloud Dispersion forces usually increase with molar mass.

16 Differences in Melting and Boiling point
Melting and boiling points increase as the number of electrons in a molecule increases More electrons = larger molar mass

17 Why is the hydrogen bond considered a “special” dipole-dipole interaction?
Decreasing molar mass Decreasing boiling point

18 Strong intermolecular forces
Properties of Liquids Surface tension is the amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area. Strong intermolecular forces High surface tension

19 Properties of Liquids Cohesion is the intermolecular attraction between like molecules Adhesion is an attraction between unlike molecules Adhesion Cohesion

20 Strong intermolecular forces
Properties of Liquids Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. Strong intermolecular forces High viscosity

21 Ice is less dense than water
3-D Structure of Water Water is a Unique Substance Maximum Density 40C Density of Water Ice is less dense than water

22 A crystalline solid possesses rigid and long-range order
A crystalline solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific (predictable) positions. An amorphous solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement and long-range molecular order. Crystalline quartz (SiO2) Non-crystalline quartz glass A glass is an optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that has cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing

23 An Arrangement for Obtaining the X-ray Diffraction Pattern of a Crystal.

24 Reflection of X-rays from Two Layers of Atoms
Extra distance = BC + CD = 2d sinq = nl (Bragg Equation)

25 Types of Crystals Ionic Crystals
Lattice points occupied by cations and anions Held together by electrostatic attraction Hard, brittle, high melting point Poor conductor of heat and electricity CsCl ZnS CaF2

26 Types of Crystals Covalent Crystals Lattice points occupied by atoms
Held together by covalent bonds Hard, high melting point Poor conductor of heat and electricity carbon atoms diamond graphite

27 Types of Crystals Molecular Crystals
Lattice points occupied by molecules Held together by intermolecular forces Soft, low melting point Poor conductor of heat and electricity water benzene

28 Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal
Types of Crystals Metallic Crystals Lattice points occupied by metal atoms Held together by metallic bonds Soft to hard, low to high melting point Good conductors of heat and electricity Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal nucleus & inner shell e- mobile “sea” of e-

29 Types of Crystals

30 Phase Changes Greatest Order Least

31 Effect of Temperature on Kinetic Energy
T2 > T1

32 The equilibrium vapor pressure is the vapor pressure measured when a dynamic equilibrium exists between condensation and evaporation H2O (l) H2O (g) Rate of condensation evaporation = Dynamic Equilibrium

33 Measurement of Vapor Pressure
Before Evaporation At Equilibrium

34 Vapor Pressure Versus Temperature
Molar heat of vaporization (DHvap) is the energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its boiling point. ln P = - DHvap RT + C Clausius-Clapeyron Equation P = (equilibrium) vapor pressure T = temperature (K) R = gas constant (8.314 J/K•mol) Vapor Pressure Versus Temperature

35 Alternate Forms of the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
At two temperatures or

36 11.7 Diethyl ether is a volatile, highly flammable organic liquid that is used mainly as a solvent. The vapor pressure of diethyl ether is 401 mmHg at 18°C. Calculate its vapor pressure at 32°C.

37 The boiling point is the temperature at which the (equilibrium) vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure. The normal boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid boils when the external pressure is 1 atm.

38 The critical temperature (Tc) is the temperature above which the gas cannot be made to liquefy, no matter how great the applied pressure. The critical pressure (Pc) is the minimum pressure that must be applied to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature.

39 The Critical Phenomenon of SF6
T < Tc T > Tc T ~ Tc T < Tc

40 Solid-Liquid Equilibrium
H2O (s) H2O (l) The melting point of a solid or the freezing point of a liquid is the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases coexist in equilibrium.

41 Molar heat of fusion (DHfus) is the energy required to melt 1 mole of a solid substance at its freezing point.

42 Heating Curve

43 Solid-Gas Equilibrium
H2O (s) H2O (g) Molar heat of sublimation (DHsub) is the energy required to sublime 1 mole of a solid. DHsub = DHfus + DHvap ( Hess’s Law)

44 11.8 Calculate the amount of energy (in kilojoules) needed to heat 346 g of liquid water from 0°C to 182°C. Assume that the specific heat of water is J/g · °C over the entire liquid range and that the specific heat of steam is 1.99 J/g · °C.

45 A phase diagram summarizes the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Phase Diagram of Water

46 Phase Diagram of Carbon Dioxide
At 1 atm CO2 (s) CO2 (g)

47 Effect of Increase in Pressure on the Melting Point
of Ice and the Boiling Point of Water

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