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Introduction to Planet Earth Let’s dig a hole to China!

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Planet Earth Let’s dig a hole to China!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Planet Earth Let’s dig a hole to China!

2 Earth Stats The Earth's mass is about 5.98 x 10 24 kg. Earth is the densest planet in our Solar System (mass/volume). Earth is made of several layers with different compositions and physical properties, like temperature, density, and the ability to flow.

3 The Composition of the Earth

4 Crust Thinnest layer (5-100 km) Two types of crust Continental Like granite Average 30 km Oceanic Like basalt (Basalt is denser than granite!) Average 5-8 km

5 The Composition of the Earth Mantle Extremely Thick! (2,900 km) It is too far down to drill How do we know what it is made of? Scientists infer based on: Pushed up rock Ocean floor/molten rock What is it like? Like the mineral olivine Large amounts of iron and magnesium www.soc.soton.ac.uk

6 The Composition of the Earth Core Pretty darn big. (6,856 km) (Slightly bigger than Mars!) 33% mass of the Earth Scientists think…. Made mostly of iron Some nickel, sulfur, oxygen What is the evidence? The particular way seismic waves travel Earth’s Magnetic field N S

7 The Structure of the Earth Inner Core Solid Outer Core Liquid Mesosphere Solid Asthenosphere Viscous Liquid Lithosphere Solid

8 Asthenosphere = ‘weak sphere’ Lower part of Mantle Lithosphere = ‘rock sphere’ Crust and upper rigid part of Mantle

9 How HOT is it? Surface of Sun! 5,500°C Sun Core 15,000,000°C

10 Convection Convection (heat) currents –carry heat from the hot inner mantle to the cooler outer mantle. The mantle gets warmer with depth top of the mantle is ~ 1,600° F (870° C) bottom of the mantle is ~4,000-6,700° F (2,200-3,700° C) The mantle contains most of the mass of the Earth

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12 Let’s Make Models of the Earth! Inner Core (yellow) diameter 2 cm (4) Outer core (orange) diameter 6 cm (4) Mesosphere (red) diameter 11cm (4) Asthenosphere (brown) diameter 12cm (2) Lithosphere (sand) –-after assembly roll edges of asthenosphere in glue and then sand (1.5mM thick)


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