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Digging Deep Into The Earth (C) Copyright 2014 - all rights reserved

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Presentation on theme: "Digging Deep Into The Earth (C) Copyright 2014 - all rights reserved"— Presentation transcript:

1 Digging Deep Into The Earth (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes

2 (C) Copyright all rights reserved moving-ore-in-Bingham-Canyon-copper-mine_10836.jpg Mine_The-Bingham-Canyon-Mine-Visitors-Center_10838.jpg See notes

3 (C) Copyright all rights reserved Earth by Chemical Composition Earth by Physical Properties crust mantle core Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Inner core Outer core rigid plastic liquid solid 250 km 150 km 30 km 2900 km 2550 km 3430 km 2200 km 1230 km See notes

4 There are 3 major layers of the Earth: Crust, Mantle, and Core. The crust is 46% oxygen, 28% silicon, 8% aluminum, 6% iron, and trace amounts of other elements and minerals. The mantle is 35% iron, 30% oxygen 15% silicon, 13% magnesium, and trace amounts of other elements and minerals. The core is 85% iron, 11% nickel, and 4% sulfur. Classifying Earth by its Chemical Composition (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes

5 (C) Copyright all rights reserved Classifying Earth by its Physical Properties Crust - rigid Lithosphere - rigid Continental crust Oceanic crust Core Outer core liquid Inner core - solid Mantle Upper mantle- Lithosphere rigid Asthenosphere plastic / semi-molten Convection currents Lower mantle / Mesosphere - rigid See notes

6 The relatively thin and cool crust forms Earth's surface. There are are 2 types of crust: Continental Crust (under the continents) km thick – 25 mi Oceanic Crust (under the oceans) 5-10 km thick – 5 mi Composition: Silicates that take the form of granite and basalt rocks (C) Copyright all rights reserved rui:license- L2_L3_L4_L5_L6_L7&FORM=R5IR38#view=detail&id=A7D933B174C526AA127C7 E4F41295ADFAC355882&selectedIndex=68 The Crust See notes

7 Granite, an igneous rock composed mainly of the minerals quartz and feldspar, makes up most of the upper crust. Crust (Granite) (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes L2_L3_L5_L6&FORM=R5IR40#view=detail&id=1D40165E6802AE63C5D35D3F484B86 50E901A1FC&selectedIndex=4

8 The Lithosphere is the outermost layer of earth's crust. This is where we live. It is the only part that is accessible to us. The Lithosphere is broken into large solid plates called tectonic plates. It is cold, solid and rigid. (C) Copyright all rights reserved Lithosphere See notes

9 Lithosphere (C) Copyright all rights reserved L2_L3_L4_L5_L6_L7&FORM=R5IR38#view=detail&id=A7D933B174C526AA127C7E4F41295ADFAC355882&selectedIndex=68 crust and most upper mantle See notes

10 Asthenosphere The upper layer of the mantle, below the lithosphere. This soft, easily deformed rock is more plastic than adjacent layers. (C) Copyright all rights reserved h+crust+layers+pictures&qft=+filterui:license- L2_L3_L4_L5_L6_L7&FORM=R5IR38#view=det ail&id=A7D933B174C526AA127C7E4F41295A DFAC355882&selectedIndex=68 Pressure and temperature place it near the melting point. See notes

11 The asthenosphere is ductile. It can be pushed like silly putty in response to the warmth of the Earth. C o n v e c t I o n C u r r e n t s These rocks actually flow, moving in response to the stresses placed on them by the churning motions of the deep interior of the Earth. The flowing asthenosphere carries the lithosphere of the Earth, including the continents, on its back. (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes

12 Mantle The mantle is about 2/3 of the total mass of the Earth. It is about 2,900 km deep. The upper mantle contains the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The rest of the mantle between the upper mantle and the core is known as the mesophere. It is denser and hotter than the upper mantle and is solid (due to pressure) and extremely hot, about 1,600˚F at the top and 4,000˚F at the bottom. (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes

13 Mantle (Peridotite) Peridotite, a rock made primarily of the minerals olivine and pyroxene, makes up much of the lower mantle. (C) Copyright all rights reserved

14 Outer Core The outer core is a liquid layer, more fluid than the asthenosphere, because it is hotter than the mantle but not as hot as the inner core. (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes However, it is under less pressure than the inner core allowing it to remain a liquid. It is made of molten iron and nickel.

15 (C) Copyright all rights reserved The Inner core is solid and made up mostly of iron. It is about 70% of the size of the moon and may have a temperature similar to the sun's surface. The solid Inner core floats in the liquid outer core and spins at a rate different from the rest of the planet. Scientists theorize this spinning causes Earth’s magnetic fields. See notes

16 The Earth’s core is the densest layer. It is made up of iron- nickel alloy and small amounts of carbon, oxygen, or sulfur. Core (Iron) (C) Copyright all rights reserved See notes

17 (C) Copyright all rights reserved This concludes the power point. Now you have a sheet to complete.

18 (C) Copyright all rights reserved Color each layer. Add the ocean and mountains on top. Ocean - blue Mountains - brown and green Lithosphere – purple Asthenosphere – orange Deep mantle – red Outer core – yellow Inner core – gray/silver Worksheet Information

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