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Chapter 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Planet “Earth” Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition

2 Geography of the oceans Earth’s oceans: Cover 70.8% of Earth’s surface Are interconnected (“world ocean”) Have huge size and volume (as a reservoir, contain 97% of Earth’s water)

3 The four principal oceans Pacific Atlantic Indian Arctic Plus: Southern or Antarctic Ocean Figure 1-2

4 Comparing oceans to the continents Figure 1-3

5 Comparing depth of the oceans to elevation on land Figure 1-4

6 Early exploration of the oceans Pacific navigators peopled many remote islands Figure 1-6

7 Early exploration of the oceans Advancements of European navigators Phoenicians explored the Mediterranean Sea and beyond Pytheas developed method to determine latitude Eratosthenes calculated circumference of Earth Ptolemy produced map that shows known land surrounded by largely unexplored oceans

8 Early exploration of the oceans The Vikings explored the North Atlantic and established many colonies Figure 1-7

9 Early exploration of the oceans During the Age of Discovery, Columbus and Magellan make journeys of exploration Figure 1-8

10 Early exploration of the oceans Voyaging for science began with English navigator and explorer Captain James Cook Mapped many unknown islands Determined outline of the Pacific Ocean Sampled ocean properties Modified shipboard diet to eliminate scurvy Used John Harrison’s chronometer to determine longitude

11 The scientific method Figure 1-10

12 Origin of the Solar System and Earth Cloud of gas and space dust (nebula) began to contract about 4.6 billion years ago The Nebular Hypothesis Figure 1-12

13 Origin of the Solar System and Earth Protoplanets were created from the nebula Protoearth was initially homogenous: Larger in size than today’s Earth Had lots of volcanic activity No continents or oceans No life

14 Density stratification Protoearth experiences density stratification Density = how heavy something is for its size Density stratification causes high density material to sink while low density material rises High density material = rock material and metals Low density material = gases

15 Density stratification creates a layered Earth Figure 1-13

16 Origin of the oceans As a result of density stratification, water for the oceans is outgassed from inside Earth Figure 1-14

17 Origin of the atmosphere Density stratification caused Earth’s early atmosphere (water vapor and carbon dioxide) to be outgassed from inside Earth The initial atmosphere was rich in hydrogen and helium Earth’s present atmosphere is rich in nitrogen and oxygen

18 Photosynthesis releases oxygen to the atmosphere Figure 1-16

19 Origin of life on Earth Stanley Miller’s experiment simulating conditions of an early Earth showed that life probably began in the oceans Figure 1-15

20 Major events in Earth’s development Figure 1F

21 End of Chapter 1 Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition


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