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1.3 History of marine science

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1 1.3 History of marine science
Ancient explorations 5000 B.C. – 800 A.D. Egypt- 1st recorded sea voyage (3200 B.C.) Phoenicians- 1st trade routes through the Mediterranean (used stars and didn’t leave sight of the shore)

2 Ancient explorations cont…
Polynesians- navigated through the open oceans Greeks- developed complex maps including latitude and longitude

3 Middle ages (800- 1400 A.D.) Scientific discovery suppressed
Vikings ( A.D) – global warming allowed for exploration/trade routes Complex vessel design Chinese Invented magnet compass (1000 A.D) Vessels designed with ventral rudders and watertight compartments

4 European voyages of discovery (1400-1700 A.D.)
Vasco de Gama ( A.D.)- 1st expedition around Cape of Good Hope to India Columbus ( ) – discovered the “new” world Amerigo Vespucci ( )- first to recognize S. America as a new continent

5 Balboa (1500s) – first European to sail in the Pacific
Magellan (1519)- first to sail around the world, circumnavigation Drake (1577)- Second circumnavigation

6 Birth of marine science (1700- 1900)
James Cook 1st scientific ocean expeditions Invented chronometer in 1735 (clock that works accurately on the ocean) United States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes expedition) Proved existence of Antarctica Gathered flora and fauna Matthew Maury Published “physical geography of the sea” Described global wind and current patterns, making sailing more efficient

7 Challenger expedition (1872)
Charles Darwin (1831) Studied coral reef growth Proposed that seafloor sinks Proposed theory of natural selection Challenger expedition (1872) Mapped the seafloor (discovered Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Marianas Trench) Discovered organisms in deepest parts of the ocean Catalogued 715 new genera and 4,717 new species




11 Twentieth Century German meteor expedition (1925) Atlantis (1931)
Established patterns of ocean water circulation Mapped the Atlantic sea floor Atlantis (1931) 1st ship designed exclusively for marine science Confirmed the existence of Mid-Atlantic ridge

12 Challenger II (1951) Measured depths of Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans Found deepest known part of the ocean (10,838 meters, Marianas Trench)


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