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1.3 History of marine science Ancient explorations 5000 B.C. – 800 A.D. – Egypt- 1 st recorded sea voyage (3200 B.C.) – Phoenicians- 1 st trade routes.

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Presentation on theme: "1.3 History of marine science Ancient explorations 5000 B.C. – 800 A.D. – Egypt- 1 st recorded sea voyage (3200 B.C.) – Phoenicians- 1 st trade routes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1.3 History of marine science Ancient explorations 5000 B.C. – 800 A.D. – Egypt- 1 st recorded sea voyage (3200 B.C.) – Phoenicians- 1 st trade routes through the Mediterranean (used stars and didn’t leave sight of the shore)

3 Ancient explorations cont… – Polynesians- navigated through the open oceans – Greeks- developed complex maps including latitude and longitude

4 Middle ages ( A.D.) – Scientific discovery suppressed – Vikings ( A.D) – global warming allowed for exploration/trade routes Complex vessel design – Chinese Invented magnet compass (1000 A.D) Vessels designed with ventral rudders and watertight compartments

5 European voyages of discovery ( A.D.) – Vasco de Gama ( A.D.)- 1 st expedition around Cape of Good Hope to India – Columbus ( ) – discovered the “new” world – Amerigo Vespucci ( )- first to recognize S. America as a new continent

6 Balboa (1500s) – first European to sail in the Pacific Magellan (1519)- first to sail around the world, circumnavigation Drake (1577)- Second circumnavigation

7 Birth of marine science ( ) James Cook – 1 st scientific ocean expeditions – Invented chronometer in 1735 (clock that works accurately on the ocean) United States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes expedition) – Proved existence of Antarctica – Gathered flora and fauna Matthew Maury – Published “physical geography of the sea” – Described global wind and current patterns, making sailing more efficient

8 Charles Darwin (1831) – Studied coral reef growth – Proposed that seafloor sinks – Proposed theory of natural selection Challenger expedition (1872) – Mapped the seafloor (discovered Mid-Atlantic Ridge and Marianas Trench) – Discovered organisms in deepest parts of the ocean – Catalogued 715 new genera and 4,717 new species

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12 Twentieth Century German meteor expedition (1925) – Established patterns of ocean water circulation – Mapped the Atlantic sea floor Atlantis (1931) – 1 st ship designed exclusively for marine science – Confirmed the existence of Mid-Atlantic ridge

13 Challenger II (1951) – Measured depths of Atlantic, Pacific, Indian Oceans – Found deepest known part of the ocean (10,838 meters, Marianas Trench)

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