Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Light microscopy Lysmikroskopi

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Light microscopy Lysmikroskopi"— Presentation transcript:

1 Light microscopy Lysmikroskopi
Optical microscopy MENA3100,OBK,




5 Only draw the ones that are ”important”

6 One lense Thin lense Projection

7 Through the centre is not deflected
Parallell to the optical axis goes through back focal plane (Through focal plane before lense becomes parallel optical axis.) f f Optical axis OBS! The image of the pencil has of cause no width in the direction parallell the optical axis! Projected onto a screen Distance one to two focal lengths

8 Focal plane

9 s (= v) s’ f M = s’ s M = v − f f f f Optical axis

10 s (= v) s’ f 2f > s > f Magnified, real image f f

11 s (= v) s’ f s > 2f Demagnified, real image f f

12 s < f s (= v) s’ f Magnefied, virtual image f f
Magnifying glass (forstørrelsesglass, lupe)

13 s (= v) s’ f f f

14 Det sammensatte mikroskop
Real image on retina Compound microscope Det sammensatte mikroskop Eyepiece Okular Real image (Primary image) OBS! Error in figure Objective Object Virtuell image Usually corrected to «infinite» tubus


16 Image plane Diffraction plane Fourier plane
All rays spread in the same direction are collected here Image plane Diffraction plane Fourier plane All rays originated from the same point are collected here

17 Fourier transformation
Read the text from Johan Taftø


19 Optical microscope Light microscope Magnification (Forstørrelse)
Resolution (Oppløsningsevne) Contrast We want to see more details

20 Virtuell image Simple microscope
Magnifying glass (forstørrelsesglass, lupe) Virtuell image

21 Magnifying glass Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632−1723)

22 The compound microscope
Det sammensatte mikroskop ca Hans Janssen Robert Hooke (1635−1703) Micrographia, 1664


24 Stereo mikroskope

25 Compound microscope for transmitted light Microscope for transmitted light

26 Mikroskope for reflected light


28 s (= v) s’ f f f

29 jwiley_microscopy/2006_Sept_Hammond.pdf

30 Illuminating system Prøve Kondensorlinse Aperturblender
Aperture diaphragm Feltblender Field diaphragm Filament

31 Jevn belysning av prøven
Belysningssystemet Prøve Kondensorlinse Aperturblender August Köhler 1866─1948 Köhler-belysning Jevn belysning av prøven Feltblenderen Bestemmer det belyste området Feltblender Aperturblenderen Bestemmer vinkelen på lyskjeglen som treffer prøven Filament

32 Avbildningssystemet Eyepiece Okular ”Tube lens” Objektiv Prøve

33 Primært bilde

34 Snell’s law: = Refraction Refraksjon ─ lysbrytning 1 2 Sin1 Sin2
v1 v2 =

35 Chromatic aberation

36 Spherical aberasjon + astigmatisme, koma, fortegning ...

37 Correcsions Objective Acromate: Chromatic for red and blue,
spherical for green Semi-acromate (fluorite) Apochromate: Chromatic for red, green, blue and dark blue, spherical for green and blue

38 Kondensorsystem Eyepice Okular (ocular)
More are needed than just the objective Kondensorsystem Eyepice Okular (ocular)

39 R = 0,61l/NA The limiting factor: Diffraction Resolution (Oppløsning)
Rayleigh criterion

40 Abbe: ”A microscope image is the interferense effect of a diffraction phenomena”


42 Numerical aperture (NA)
NA = nsina Resolution Oppløsning R = 0,61l/NA


44 Objectives for oil immersion


46 Optical anisotropy Calcite

47 Optically active crystals in the microscope

48 Optically active crystals in the microscope

49 Remember that geologists often call their book on microscopy on thin sections for
optical crystallography, and microscopy with reflected light is ore microscopy (malmmikroskopi). Some web sites:

Download ppt "Light microscopy Lysmikroskopi"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google