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Single Lens Imaging System. Figure 29.8B Retina Optic nerve Fovea Optic nerve fibers Retina Photoreceptors NeuronsConeRod.

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Presentation on theme: "Single Lens Imaging System. Figure 29.8B Retina Optic nerve Fovea Optic nerve fibers Retina Photoreceptors NeuronsConeRod."— Presentation transcript:

1 Single Lens Imaging System

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4 Figure 29.8B Retina Optic nerve Fovea Optic nerve fibers Retina Photoreceptors NeuronsConeRod

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6 Human photoreceptor cells are named for their shapes –Rods –Cones Figure 29.8A Cell body Synaptic knobs Membranous discs containing visual pigments ROD CONE

7 Slide 15 Vertebrate Eye Rods Cones

8 Three Cone Opsins (red, green, blue)

9 R(ed), G(reen) B(lue) Monitors

10 Robert Hooke ( ) Built one of the first useful compound microscopes Observed structure of cork Coined the term “Cell”. Published Micrographia (1665)

11 1665 Hooke publishes Micrographia 1678 van Leeuwenhoek observes protozoa (“little animals”) Schleiden & Schwann proposed “Cell Theory” 1860 Pasteur confirms Cell Theory 1931 Ruska invents electron microscope 1932 Zerniki develops phase contrast microscopy 1955 Minsky invents the laser scanning microscope (LSM) 1989 Webb, Denk & Strickler invent multiphoton LSM

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16 Anatomy of a Compound Microscope base lamp housing substage condenser stage stand trinocular tube eye piece objective turret

17 Upright Microscope

18 Contrast Microscopy Koehler Illumination Dark Field Phase Contrast Differential Interference Contrast Hoffman Modulation

19 Condensers

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22 Koehler Illumination Condenser lens is adjusted so that an image of the field diaphragm is focused onto the object (specimen) plane

23 1. focus specimen 2. stop down field diaphragm until edges are visible 3. focus condenser until image of field diaphragm is sharp 4. open field diaphragm until edges are no longer visible Koehler Illumination

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25 Conjugate Planes of Focus

26 Path of “Imaging Rays” Conjugate Planes

27 Path of “Illuminating Rays” Conjugate Planes

28 Light Paths Illuminating and imaging rays do not share conjugate planes

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31 Projector vs Microscope

32 Microscope produces a virtual image of the back focal plane of the objective

33 Histochemistry Hematoxylin & Eosin (H & E stain) Immunohistochemistry

34 Oil immersion n = 1.0 n = 1.5 n = 1.52 n = 1.5

35 Effect of Oil

36 Contrast Microscopy Koehler Illumination Dark Field Phase Contrast Differential Interference Contrast Hoffman Modulation

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38 Darkfield Images Brightfield Darkfield

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