Presentation on theme: "T RANSLATION S TRATEGIES ETI 301 T RANSLATION T HEORY N ESLIHAN K ANSU -Y ETKINER."— Presentation transcript:
T RANSLATION S TRATEGIES ETI 301 T RANSLATION T HEORY N ESLIHAN K ANSU -Y ETKINER
ON TRANSLATION STRATEGIES Chesterman (1997) defines strategies as processes with which translators seek to conform to norms. Taking the behavioural nature of strategies into account, they can be seen as forms of textual manipulation. They are operations a translator will perform when formulating the target text in a way that the desired relation between the source and the translation, or translation and other similar target texts can be achieved. Strategies can be directly observed in a translation by comparing it with the source text. ( Chesterman 1997: 88-89)
S EMANTıC TRANSLATıON STRATEGıES Chesterman (2000) introduces translation strategies on three levels. He restates the main differences between them, by comparing pragmatic strategies with syntactic/grammatical and semantic strategies in the following manner: “If syntactic strategies manipulate the form, and semantic strategies manipulate meaning, pragmatic strategies can be said to manipulate the message itself.” (Chesterman, 2000, p. 107)
LET’S REMEMBER S YNTACTıC /G RAMMATıCAL S TRATEGıES 1-Borrowing 2-Calque 3-Literal Translation 4-Transposition 5-Modulation 6-Equivalence 7-Adaptation
SEMANTIC STRATEGIES SYNONYMY: This strategy selects not the obvious equivalent of a word, but a synonymy or near synonymy for it. “The present issue of SKY LIFE SKY LIFE’ın şimdiki (yeni/bu) baskısı” “page 89 of SKYLIFE Magazine” “Derginin 89. sayfası”.
ANTONYMY The translator selects an antonym and combines this with a negation elements. Prices exclude tips and service charges. Fiyatlara bahşiş ve hizmet bedeli dahil değildir.
H YPONYMY A) ST superordinate becomes TT hyponymy “Among other companies I preferred Turkish Airlines. Diğer havayolları arasında Türk Hava yollarını ercih ettim”.
H YPONYMY B-ST hyponymy becomes TT superordinate “She had lost her dearest lipstick” “En sevdiği makyaj malzemesini kaybetmişti. C-ST hyponymy X becomes TT hyponymy Y. “En sevdiği parlatıcısını kaybetmişti”.
CONVERSES Converses are pairs (USUALLY) of verbal structures which expresses the same state of affairs from opposing viewpoints, such as buy and sell. “If the item to be returned was not sold by Amazon.com, you will need to contact the seller directly. “İade edilecek olan ürün Amazon.com’dan satın alınmadığı taktirde,……”.
ABSTRACTıON A different selection of abstraction level may either move from abstract to more concrete or from concrete to more abstract. “From all over the world” “Her ülkeden”, “dünyanın her köşesinden” “The day you left me it was raining ”. “Beni terk ettiğin gün gökyüzü ağlıyordu”.
DISTRIBUTION CHANGE This is a change in the distribution of the “same” semantic components ove more items (expansion) or fewer items (compression). -Could you please shut the door? -Kapıyı kapatabilmeniz mümkün mü acaba diye sorsam? -Do you mind if I open the window? -Pencereyi açabilir miyim?.
EMPHASIS CHANGE This strategy adds to, reduce of alters the emphasis or thematic focus for one reason or another. GDP per capita increased by 5% in 2003 was expected to rise further in the course of 2004 due to substantial increase in tourism revenues. Turizm gelirlerindeki büyük artış nedeniyle 2003 yılında % 5 oranında artan kişi başı GSYİH 2004 yılında daha da yükselmesi beklenmiştir.
PARAPHRASING The result of this strategy is a TT that is 'free'. The meanings of the individual words are disregarded, in favour of the pragmatic sense of some higher unit. Filtering of wordplay into the target text is often realised with this strategy. “Bir yandan köftesini yerken bir yandan nargilesini tüttürüyordu. While he was eating his Turkish grilled lamb meat balls, he was smoking his Turkish water pipe.
T ROPE CHANGE This strategy refers to the kind of changes the translator makes when translating rhetorical tropes, i.e. figurative expressions, e.g. metaphors. A. ST trope X-> TT trope X For example, a ST pun is retained as a pun in TT. The TT trope can be (i)semantically identical, (ii)semantically related or (iii)not semantically related but still the same type of trope as the ST trope. B. ST trope X^ TT trope Y The figurativeness is retained but the trope changes, e.g. a ST pun is translated as a metaphor in TT. C. ST trope X^ TT trope - The trope is dropped in the translation. D. ST trope - -» TT trope X There is no trope in the ST but one is created in the TT.
IN VINO Yağmur kadehini kaldırımlara çarptı: Şimdi cam kırıkları içinde, bak, Sarhoş fareler koşuyor. (Can Yücel) IN VINO The rain smashed its drinking cup on the pavement. Look now, look at the drunkun mice Scurrying amongst the litter of broken glass(Trans:F.K. Fergar)
KIRKSEKİZ Adalet kazan Biz kepçe (C. Yücel) COOPERATION Justice is a great big pot And we are its laddle (Çeviri: F.K. Fergar)
Belkim Bir Kertenkeleydim Çatal matal kaç çataldım kimbilir Bir dereden bir kendimi getirdim Haydan gelip huya giden bir huysuz Heyheyler içinde bir heydim. (Can Yücel) The Song og A Lizard Perhaps Was I Fork, was I knife, was my edge sharp enough Out of thousand excuses I moulded myself A restless boy easy in his coming, easy in his going I was a fretting nest of festering fits.
IMPORTANCE OF BEING ERNEST ST: "You have always told me it was Ernest. I have introduced you to everyone as Ernest. You answer to the name of Ernest. You look as if your name was Ernest. You are the most earnest- looking person I ever saw in my life. It is perfectly absurd your saying that your name isn't Ernest. It's on your cards. Here is one of them. (Taking it from case.) 'Mr. Ernest Worthing, B. 4, The Albany.‘ I'll keep this as a proof that your name is Ernest if ever you attempt to deny it to me, or to Gwendolen, or to anyone else." p.98
T RANSLATING P OETRY : S EVEN S TRATEGIES AND A B LUEPRINT phonetic translation, which attempts to reproduce the SL sound in the TL while at the same time producing an acceptable paraphrase of the sense; literal translation, where the emphasis is on a word-for-word rendering of the original; metrical translation, where the dominant criterion is the reproduction of the SL metre; poetry into prose ; rhymed translation, where the translator ‘enters into a double bondage’ of metre and rhyme; blank verse translation ; and, interpretation, either ‘versions’, where the substance of the SL text is re- tained but the form is changed, or ‘imitations’, where the translator produc- es a poem of his own which has ‘only title and point of departure, if those, in common with the source text’
T HERE WAS A LITTLE GIRL BY H ENRY W ADSWORTH L ONGFELLOW There was a little girl, Who had a little curl, Right in the middle of her forehead. When she was good, She was very good indeed, But when she was bad she was horrid.