Principles Actual translations are studied –no decontextualized examples or speculation Descriptive approach is taken –not prescriptive A group of translations may be studied (rather than single one)
Toury 1 1.Divide text into textual segments small-scale linguistic units 2.Map ST units onto TT units 3.Translation relationships involve similarities/differences 4.Focal concept is invariance: each pair shares an invariant core either in substance or function 5.Establish relationships exhibited by the pair 6.Compile sets to establish relationship for entire text
Lambert and van Gorp 1.Preliminary Data title and title page, paratexts, general strategy (e.g. partial/complete translation) generate hypotheses to investigate on macro and micro level 2.Macro-level division of texts (chapters, etc.), relation between types of narrative, dialogue, description, etc., narrative structure 3.Micro-level shifts on linguistic, stylistic levels 4.Systemic Context intertextual relations, genre relations
van Leuven-Zwart 1 Microstructural shifts –below sentence level Macrostructural shifts –fictional world, themes, characterisation, point of view Assumption: frequent or consistent microstructural shifts lead to macrostructural shifts
van Leuwen-Zwart 2 1.Divide sentences (ST and TT) into transemes: a comprehensible text unit 2.Establish the archi- transemes (ATR): the common denominator of meaning between corresponding ST and TT transeme 3.Establish the types of relationship
van Leuwen-Zwart 3 Relationships: Modulation with respect to the ATR, one transeme manifests conjunction, while the other manifests disjunction semantic (and subcategories) stylistic (and subcategories)
van Leuwen-Zwart 4 Relationships: Modification each transeme has an aspect of disjunction with respect to ATR semantic (and subcategories) stylistic (and subcategories) syntactic-semantic (and subcategories) syntactic-stylistic (and subcategories)
van Leuwen-Zwart 5 Relationships: Mutation it is generally impossible to establish an ATR due to the lack of any aspect of conjunction
Chesterman (1997) Describes strategies –less theoretical, more practical application –syntactic strategies subcategories, e.g. transposition –semantic strategies subcategories, e.g. emphasis change –pragmatic strategies subcategories, e.g. explicitness change
Sources of explanation 1 Norms (Toury, Chesterman) –desire by translator to conform to norms –Toury: initial norms, preliminary norms, operational norms –Chesterman: expectancy norms, accountability norms, communication norms, relation norms Laws (Toury) –state inherent relations between all variables found to be relevant to translation –state likelihood that a kind of behaviour, or surface realization, would occur under a set of specifiable conditions
Sources of explanation 2 Systemic position (polysystem theory): –position of the system of translated texts in the target culture governs translational norms Cognitive and socio-cultural factors (Chesterman) Contexts of production Translator’s attitudes
Challenges Categories predefined or emerging from the data? Dealing with complexities of analytical categories Performing microanalysis on larger quantities of text –selection of excerpts? –on what basis? Establishing link between micro and macroanalysis Combining textual analysis and socio- cultural analysis Moving from description to (hypothesised) explanation
Reading Brownlie, Siobhan (2003)‘Investigating Explanations of Translational Phenomena: A Case for Multiple Causality’ Target 15(1): 111- 152. Chesterman, Andrew (1998) ‘Causes, Translations, Effects’ Target 10(2): 201-230. Chesterman, Andrew (1997) Memes of Translation, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Hermans, Theo (1999) Translation in Systems; Descriptive and Systemic Approaches Explained, Manchester: St Jerome. van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty (1989) ‘Translation and Other: Similarities and Dissimilarities I’ Target 1(2): 151-181. van Leuven-Zwart, Kitty (1990) ‘Translation and Other: Similarities and Dissimilarities II’ Target 2(1): 69-95. Toury, Gideon (1995) Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
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