Presentation on theme: "PROF.DR.ÖZCAN OCAKOĞLU. Congenital Glaucoma Congenital glaucoma is a rare form of glaucoma Congenital glaucoma Affected infants may be born with a high."— Presentation transcript:
Congenital Glaucoma Congenital glaucoma is a rare form of glaucoma Congenital glaucoma Affected infants may be born with a high intraocular pressure or may develop an increased IOP within the “first weeks of life".intraocular Both eyes are usually involved, but to varying severity Boys are affected slightly more frequently than girls.
The Cause A hereditary factor is occasionally present. The IOP elevation is caused by the failure of the anterior chamber angle and the trabecular meshwork to develop appropriately during intrauterine development. anterior chambertrabecular meshwork In these infants, the aqueous humor does not properly drain, but since the production of aqueous humor is nevertheless normal,aqueous The intraocular pressure is highintraocular
Figure1: The normal chamber angle: on the left is a histological cross-section; on the right is a drawing of the same Figure 2: An underdeveloped chamber angle
Consequences of an Increased IOP during Infancy Depending on the IOP level, glaucomatous damage is inevitable after weeks, months or even years.glaucomatous damage This basically occurs via the same mechanisms as in the adult. In addition to optic nerve damage, the globe (eyeball) enlarges because the sclera in the eye of a baby is distensible. optic nervesclera
Enlargement of the globe (buphthalmos) is a result of elevated intraocular pressure. The anatomic landmarks are displaced. The anterior chamber is deep All segments of the outer eye, but especially the cornea and sclera, expand.corneasclera Principally at the corneoscleral junction Clinical appearance
However, certain layers of the cornea are not very elastic, and stretching may result in small tears(Haabs striae) that cause a certain degree of corneal opacification.cornea Haabs striae
Corneal epithelial edema caused by elevated intraocular pressure and failure of the corneal endothelial pump mechanism. Epifora, photofobia and blepharospazm (clinical triad)
If the IOP is lowered, this opacity is partially reversible. As a result of the optic nerve damage and/or corneal opacity, children with congenital glaucoma may be permanently visually impaired.optic nervecongenital glaucoma
Diagnosis of Congenital Glaucoma Congenital Glaucoma Clinical clues Enlarged eyes; tearing, and photophobia (avoidance of light). Often, babies also rub their eyes. If CG is suggested, a thorough examination under general anesthesia is necessary. to avoid blepharospasm (spasmodic closure of the eyes). to prevent a transient rise in the IOP. Besides measuring the IOP, anesthesia allows a thorough investigation of all segments of the eye and, in particular, the optic disc.optic disc
EPIPHORA HAAB’S STRIAE CORNEAL EDEMA HIGH IRIS INSERTION ON GONIOSCOPY
Infantile Glaucoma Infantile glaucoma is also congenital glaucoma Infantile glaucomacongenital glaucoma However, intraocular pressure starts to rise at some time during the first years of life.intraocular The cause for this IOP increase is basically the same as in congenital glaucoma, but it occurs later since the anterior chamber angle is more mature than when glaucoma is present at birth.congenital glaucoma anterior chamber The IOP may be normal during the first years of childhood and then gradually increase.
Juvenile Glaucoma Juvenile glaucoma is an IOP increase that occurs in an older child or young adult and is often inherited. Juvenile During a thorough examination, the ophthalmologist may find discreet evidence of an incomplete maturation of the chamber angle, The clinical features as well as treatment of juvenile glaucoma are quite similar to adult Primary Chronic Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG)juvenilePrimary Chronic Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG)
Treatment The treatment is primarily surgical. Different surgical procedures (according to the degree of the maldevelopment and the clarity of the cornea) Goniotomy Trabeculotomy Trabeculotomy + trabeculectomy Supplemental treatment options are Medical therapy Implant surgery Cyclodestructive procedures TRABECULOTOMY GONIOTOMY