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**Chapter 16 Electric Energy and Capacitance**

Potential difference and Electric potential Point Charges Charge Conductors Equipotential Surface Capacitance and Capacitors

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**Work and Potential Energy**

How do I calculate work? How do I calculate electric potential energy? How do I relate work with electric potential energy?

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**Potential Difference What is potential difference?**

What are its SI units? Potential difference vs. Potential energy Potential difference for uniform electric field

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Example A proton moves a distance of 0.02m parallel to the electric field of 200 N/C. What is the work done by the proton? What is the change in potential energy? What is the change in potential?

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**Energy and Charge Movements**

Basic fact For positive charge For negative charge Energy conservation

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**Electric Field and Electric Potential of a Point Charge**

What is zero electric potential? How do I calculate electric potential due to a point charge? Observations

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**Electrical Potential Energy of Two Charges**

What about Superposition principle? How do I calculate it? What if?

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**Examples Find the electric potential 1.0 cm from a proton.**

What is the potential difference between two points that are 1 and 2 cm apart?

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Examples Two point charges are on the y axis, one of magnitude 3x10-9 c at the origin and a second of magnitude 6.0 x 10-9 c at y=30 cm. Find the potential at y=60 cm.

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**Conductors in Equilibrium**

What happens to charge? What about electric field and potential? Electric field Potential

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**The Electron Volt What is it? What are its units? Some comparisons**

Electrons in normal atoms have energies of 10’s of eV Excited electrons have energies of 1000’s of eV High energy gamma rays have energies of millions of eV

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**Equipotentials and Electric Fields Lines – Positive Charge**

What is it? How about work done? How about electric field lines? Dipole

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Capacitance What is it? How do I find it? What are its SI units?

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**Parallel-Plate Capacitor**

Construction How does geometry play its part? How does the charge build up on the plates? What does the electric field look like?

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**Applications of Capacitors – Computers**

Computers use capacitors in many ways

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**Capacitors in Circuits**

What is a Circuit? How do you represent a circuit? How do I connect a capacitor in a circuit? What happens when a capacitor is connected in a circuit? What different ways can one connect a capacitor in a circuit?

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**Capacitors in Parallel**

Total charge Potential difference Equivalent capacitance

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Equivalent Capacitor How do I calculate equivalent capacitance?

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**Capacitors in Series How do I connect capacitors in series?**

What happens when capacitors are connected in series? The potential difference How do I calculate equivalent capacitance? How do I calculate the energy stored in a capacitor?

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**Medical Application Defibrillators**

When fibrillation occurs, the heart produces a rapid, irregular pattern of beats A fast discharge of electrical energy through the heart can return the organ to its normal beat pattern

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**Capacitors with Dielectrics**

What is a dielectric? How does it affect capacitance? What is dielectric strength? Atomic view of dielectrics

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Examples A capacitor of 4 micro farad is connected across the a 12 volt battery. What is the charge on each plate?

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Examples Two capacitors are connected in series across a 400 V power source. What is the charge on each capacitor?

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Examples Two capacitors are connected in parallel across a 400 V power source. What is the charge on each capacitor?

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