Presentation on theme: "Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction Description A. Reproduction is characteristic of living things and is essential for the survival of species.B. Genetic information is passed from generation to generation by DNA; DNA controls the traits of an organism.C. Changes in the DNA of an organism can cause changes in traits, and manipulation of DNA in organisms has led to genetically modified organisms.
2 Benchmark Number & Descriptor SC.7.L.16.1Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.SC.7.L.16.2Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees.SC.7.L.16.3Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.SC.7.L.16.4Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment.
4 DNA DNA = Deoxyribonucleic Acid Traits which are passed from parents to offspring are carried in DNA.DNA is a blueprint for the cells in an organism.Without DNA, an organisms traits would never form.
5 DIRECTIONS GENES CHROMOSOMES Pieces of DNA Carry traits CharacteristicsHelp pass traits from parent to offspringYou inherit your genes.Offspring receive only some genes from parents.Genes combine differently, so you look different.Genes are located on chromosomes.Thousands of genes can be found on a single chromosome.Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of the cells.Each type of organism contains a set number of chromosomes.Humans = 23 Pairs
7 KNOWLEDGE CHECK What does DNA stand for? Where is DNA located? Why is DNA important?
8 KNOWLEDGE CHECK What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid Where is DNA located? DNA is located on genes which are carried by chromosomes.Why is DNA important? It’s the blueprint for how organisms are made.
10 What is Heredity?Heredity is the passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring.Genetics is the study of heredity.
11 Gregor Mendel WHO: WHAT: WHEN: Austrian monk Worked with pea plants and discovered how traits get passed from generation to generationWHEN:Around 1856
12 PASSING OF TRAITS Each gene contains 2 ALLELES 1 allele from mom1 allele from dadIndividual alleles are represented by an upper or lowercase letter.Some alleles are dominant, and others are recessive.BLUE = alleleRED = alleletogether = gene
13 TRAITS TYPES OF TRAITS LETTER COMBINATIONS The trait that is observed in the offspring is theDOMINANT TRAIT(uppercase).It only takes one dominant allele for that trait to be shown.The trait that disappears in the offspring is theRECESSIVE TRAIT(lowercase).It takes 2 recessive alleles for that trait to be shown.Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa)Also referred to as a hybrid combinationHomozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)Also referred to as a purebred combination
14 TRAITS GENOTYPE PHENOTYPE Refers to the letter (allele) combinationTT, Tt. ttIf a capital letter is present in the letter pair, the dominant trait will be expressed in that organism.If 2 lower case letters are paired, the recessive trait will be expressed in that organism.Refers to the physical characteristic being expressedUses words/phrases to describe not lettersExamples:tall, shortwhite, black
15 PUNNETT SQUARES TtTtTool used to determine characteristics of offspringEach box represents the probability of an offspring receiving a trait.Example:Top outside (Tt) is a gene passed on by the fatherLeft outside (tt) is a gene passed on by the mother.4 middle boxes are possible gene combinations an offspring may receive.T = Tallt = ShortAll offsprings will be tall (all boxes contain the dominant trait for tallness).
16 PUNNETT SQUARESShort hair (L) is dominant to long hair (l) in mice. What is the genotype and phenotype ratio of a heterozygous short-haired mouse crossed with a long-haired mouse?Punnett Square:L llGenotype ratio: ½ Ll: ½ llPhenotype ratio: ½ short hair: ½ long hairLlll
17 PEDIGREE A chart used to trace traits throughout a family Parts of the chartCircle = femalesSquares = malesHalf-filled in/Dotted = carrierHave the gene but do not show signs of itFilled-in = affectedHave both the gene and symptoms of that trait
18 KNOWLEDGE CHECK ____ What do we call the trait that is observed? What case (upper or lower) is it written in?What about the one that disappears?What case is it written in?Trait Tall = AaTrait short = aaAa x aa5. Complete the PunnettSquare.____
19 KNOWLEDGE CHECK __A_ __a_ _a__ Aa aa What do we call the trait that is observed? DominantWhat case (upper or lower) is it written in? UpperWhat about the one that disappears? RecessiveWhat case is it written in? LowerTrait Tall = AaTrait short = aaAa x aa5. Complete the Punnett Square.__A___a__a__Aaaa
21 REPRODUCTION SEXUAL ASEXUAL Primary method of reproduction for the vast majority of visible organisms, including almost all animals and plantsCharacterized by two processes:meiosis, halving of the number of chromosomesfertilization, combination of two gametes and the restoration of the original number of chromosomesResults in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring.A form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis or fertilizationAsexual reproduction = one parent.The primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea, bacteria, and protistsMitosis is the main way of reproduction.
22 REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL MITOSIS All forms of asexual reproduction utilize the process of mitosis.Begins with one replication (copying of the chromosome material) and one division of the chromosome material This results is 2 daughter cells being produced with the same number of and identical chromosomes as in the parent cell.Asexual reproduction in liverworts: a caducuous phylloid germinating
23 Mitosis sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt Interphase Normal functionsUpon trigger, chromosomes & centrioles duplicate.ProphaseEarly: nuclear envelope degrades; chromosomes start to condense.Late: chromosomes thicken; spindle forms between centriolesMetaphaseSpindle fibers attach to kinetochores.Chromosomes line up at cell equator.sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt
24 Mitosis sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt Anaphase Chromatids separate at centromeresChromosomes move to poles.TelophaseNuclear envelope reforms in each of two daughter cells.Cytokinesis separates two new cells.InterphaseDaughter cells are genetically identical to each other and the parent cell but smaller.sdst.org/shs/apbio/... /mitosis powerpoint.ppt
25 REPRODUCTION SEXUAL MEIOSIS Hoverflies mating in midair flight. Process produces the sex cellsContain ½ the chromosomes as the parentSince ½ male chromosomes and ½ female chromosomes combine = genetic varietyHoverflies mating in midair flight.
26 MEIOSISProphase I: the chromosomes condense and homologous chromosomes pair up to form tetrads.Metaphase I: the tetrads are all arranged at the metaphase plate.Anaphase I: the homologous chromosomes separate and are pulled toward opposite poles.Telophase I: movement of homologous chromosomes continues until there is a haploid set at each pole.Cytokinesis : by the same mechanisms as mitosis usually occurs simultaneouslyProphase 2: spindle reforms and chromosomes move toward the metaphase plate.Metaphase 2: sister chromatids lined up on themetaphase plate.Anaphase 2: sister chromatids are separated and pulled toward opposite poles of the cell.Telophase 2 and Cytokinesis: nuclei form ateither pole, and each cell is finally divided into two identical daughter cells.
29 REPRODUCTION SEXUAL ASEXUAL EXAMPLES: EXAMPLES: Sexual Reproduction DNA from 2 individuals merge to form one.Animals, plantsFertilizationPollen is delivered to female part of plant.Flowering plantsEXAMPLES:Fragmentation/RegenerationBody of parent breaks and produces offspring.Fungi, moss, sea stars, planarianBuddingOffspring grows out of parent.Yeast, hydras
30 KNOWLEDGE CHECKLabel each of the following as either Asexual or Sexual reproduction:Spores buddingNearly all organisms reproduce this wayMitosisMeiosisStarfish is cut in half; both halves grow into a whole starfish.One parent neededNot identical to parentsTwo parents neededIdentical to parentSperm and eggs
31 KNOWLEDGE CHECK ASEXUAL SEXUAL Spores budding Mitosis Starfish is cut in half; both halves grow into a whole starfish.Identical to parentOne parent neededNot identical to parentsTwo parents neededSperm and eggsMeiosisNearly all organisms reproduce this way.
33 MAKING IT JUST RIGHT SELECTIVE BREEDING HYBRIDIZATION The process of using specific plants or animals with specific traits to reproduce offspring with those traitsThese breeded plants/animals can be:Larger in sizeProvide more foodResistant to diseaseThe process of crossing to plants/animals with different variations of the same traitThe resulting offspring is created to have the best traits of the parents.Examples:Corn: farmers each year try to grow corn that are disease free and higher quality.Animals: if 2 different species are bred, a stronger but sterile species may be produced
34 MAKING IT JUST RIGHT INBREEDING Involves using two plants/animals that have the same or similar genes.The offspring produced will be purebred.If purebreds are created, specific genes can be passed along.Inbreeding, though, can cause a population to die.Since they are genetically similar, if one animal/plant comes down with a disease, the entire population may have it.
35 BREEDING EXAMPLES Disease resistance, greater nutritional value Miniature Horse was specifically bred small to work in mines.Due to inbreeding, all cheetahs are closely related.Mule combines the best traits of a horse and a donkey.
36 GENETIC ENGINEERINGProcesses in which genes with specific DNA strands are removed and transferred into another organism.This process is much faster then altering organisms through breeding techniques.Genetic engineering is used in biotechnology, medicine, and cloning.
37 GENETIC ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY GENETIC MODIFICATION Involves growing cells for industrial purposesAgriculture:Many plants and crops are susceptible to disease.Scientists have been able to isolate fighting genes and insert them into plants/crops for better survival rates.Genetic engineering produces a lot of strong feelings among people.PROS:Crops and farm animals may be produced to better tolerate drought, disease, and infestations, therefore increasing the food production around the world.CONS:Many people are concerned about mixing genetic material with different species.Once in the wild, the effects of changes are out of the scientists hands.
38 GENETIC ENGINEERING MEDICINES CLONING Insulin has been able to be created through Genetic engineering.Insulin was once made from animals, but people were allergic to it. Now it is created from bacteria with no allergies and is less expensive.Vaccines have been able to be produced through Genetic engineering.Vaccines such as Hepatitis B are now less expensive to produce and can be made in mass production.Clones are living things that have exactly the same genes.Agriculture has done this forever:Taking clippings of plants and replanting themThe cuttings grow into new and identical plants.Humans and animals, however, become more controversial:Is it ok to clone spare body parts?
39 GENETIC ENGINEERING GENE THERAPY WHAT WOULD YOU DO? Faulty genes inside a human bodies can be replaced with normal, healthy onesUnfortunately, most cells in our body only live for a short period of time.The new cells with the new genes can function for a short period of time.The more we know about DNA and genes, the more we may be able to predict our future.People today can be screened for certain genetic conditions.For exampleIf a person is found to be a carrier of a specific gene defect, he/she will need to make a choice if he/she are to have kids.Perhaps you carry a gene for cancer which may or may not turn on. What would you do?
40 KNOWLEDGE CHECKName three types of breeding and a reason why they are used.What is Genetic engineering?Why is Genetic engineering supported by some yet forbidden by others?
41 KNOWLEDGE CHECKName three types of breeding and a reason why they are used. Selective breeding, hybridization, inbreeding. All 3 can be used to make specific higher yielding crops. Crops less vulnerable to disease and animals for specified jobsWhat is Genetic engineering? Processes in which genes with specific DNA strands are removed and transferred into another organism.Why is Genetic engineering supported by some yet forbidden by others? Supported = create medicines and cells for people to surviveForbidden = Messing with mother nature. Do not have control if changes were to get into the wild