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Father __________ Austrian monk who worked with ___________in monastery garden. Developed first theories on _________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Father __________ Austrian monk who worked with ___________in monastery garden. Developed first theories on _________________."— Presentation transcript:


2 Father __________ Austrian monk who worked with ___________in monastery garden. Developed first theories on _________________.

3 Grow quickly Many _________________ ______________ so they have both _____ and ___________reproductive parts on the ______flower and can __________themselves. They are ___________meaning offspring will have same traits as parent. Can ___________so one plant can pollinate another plant to produce offspring.

4 ____________________(features with different forms in a population) that are_________from ________ to _______. EX: Flower color or seed shape Studied one _________ at a _____ to determine which traits appeared in offspring.

5 _________ crossed true breeding plants for each ____________. Example: crossed purple flower plant & white flower plant. All offspring displayed the ___________ of one parent. In this case, all had purple flowers. White flowers seemed to _________.

6 The trait that showed up most often in the offspring was the __________ trait. The trait that seemed to disappear or fade away was the _________trait. To determine what happened to the _______ trait, _________decided to do another set of __________. g

7 Allowed the plants produced by his first experiment to ____________. All purple flowered plants self pollinated: ____% of offspring were purple flowered _____% of offspring were white flowered

8 Recessive trait did not ________, it was _______ by the dominant trait as it showed up again in the _______generation. Each plant had ______ of instructions (one from each parent) for each characteristic. g/550px-Punnett_square_mendel_flowers.svg.png

9 ___________________is predetermined by genes. _____are passed on from parents. Some forms of genes are _______and others are ________. Organisms have 2 copies of each gene (one from each parent). ______(different forms for a gene) for different genes segregate independently of one another. (____________cross)

10 Different forms of a ______ EX: freckles or no freckles Dominant allele – expressed with an ____________letter. Recessive allele – expressed with a ___________letter. NOTE: The ______ letter is used to express an allele – variations are expressed with the upper or lower case. 83/Punnett_square_(PSF).png

11 PHENOTYPE: __________characteristic – the characteristic that you can see. EX: Purple flowers GENOTYPE: The two ________ alleles for a trait. (Cannot be seen) EX: PP or Pp

12 _________ Dominant: Two dominant alleles PP or DD or BB __________Recessive: Two recessive alleles pp or dd or bb __________: One dominant and one recessive allele Pp or Dd or Bb

13 __________ all possible _______ combinations for offspring from particular parents. How to make a Punnett Square crossing a homozygous recessive white flowering pea plant with a heterozygous purple flowering pea plant.

14 ___________ Dominance: One allele is not completely dominant over the other allele. Each allele contributes to the phenotype produced. EX: Snapdragons (white and red produce pink) One gene may influence more than one trait. EX: in white tigers, one gene codes for fur color and eye color. Several genes may work together to produce a trait. EX: human skin, hair and eye color

15 Creates the ____________ It is a copying process that produces cells with ____ the number of chromosomes. Helped Walter Sutton determine genes are located on ____________ in the nucleus of the cell. Prior to this no one knew where the genetic traits (genes) were located.

16 Meiosis I Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I and Cytokinesis Meiosis II Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II and Cytokinesis


18 __________chromosome s find each other and pair up (one chromosome from each parent ______________may occur Centrioles move toward the poles Nuclear membrane begins to dissolve

19 Spindle fibers attach to homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes line up at the equator

20 Homologous chromosomes are separated so each chromosome moves toward opposite poles.

21 Homologous chromosomes are completely separated with one chromosome at each pole. Nuclear membrane re- forms Cytokinesis takes place and cell divides to form two cells. am/telophase1m.jpg

22 Centrioles move to poles Nuclear membrane dissolves NOTE: __________ ARE ______ COPIED AGAIN PRIOR TO PROPHASE II

23 Spindle fibers form and attach to chromosomes Chromosomes line up at the equator.

24 Chromosomes are pulled apart so each chromatid moves toward opposite poles.

25 Chromatids reach the poles. Nuclear membrane re-forms Cytokinesis occurs

26 _____ new cells Each cell has ½ the number of chromosomes as parent cell (__________ – N) New cells are _____ ________ to each other or to the parents as a result of crossing over.

27 Meiosis Sex cells Two divisions 4 genetically different cells produced Cells produced have half the number of chromosomes (haploid) 2n  n Somatic cells One division 2 genetically identical cells produced Cells produced have the same number of chromosomes as parents 2n  2n Mitosis

28 Chromosomes that carry the genes that determine sex. In humans: Females: two X chromosomes (XX) Males: one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY) Sex of offspring is determined by the ______: Egg fertilized by sperm with X chromosome = FEMALE Egg fertilized by sperm with Y chromosome = MALE

29 Males have an X and Y chromosome. The Y chromosome does not have all the genes found on the X chromosome, so they only have one copy of those genes on the X. If those genes are damaged, they do not have a backup while females do – they have two X chromosomes. Therefore, males are more likely to inherit these disorders. Examples: Color blindness Hemophilia ency/images/ency/fullsize/9962.jpg

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