Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Genetics GREGOR MENDEL and HIS WORK. Genetics the study of heredity the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Genetics GREGOR MENDEL and HIS WORK. Genetics the study of heredity the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetics GREGOR MENDEL and HIS WORK

2 Genetics the study of heredity the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring

3 Austrian Monk Considered the Father of Heredity did experiments with peas and proved that certain characteristics…….. Gregor Mendel

4 ………. Such as color and height, are passed from parent to offspring

5 Differences all differences in organisms are not caused by genetics some are caused by the environment the conditions under which the animals are raised

6 Dominant and Recessive Traits

7 Dominant Traits Dominant traits are characteristics that people see you have

8 Symbols dominant genes capital letters

9 Recessive Traits Recessive traits are characteristics that you have which people cannot see

10 Symbols recessive genes lower case letters

11 When someone has a recessive trait that can be seen, it means that they inherited one recessive trait from each parent

12 What are some dominant and recessive traits?

13 Phenotypes THE EXTERNAL APPEARANCE OF AN ORGANISM

14 Genotypes THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF AN ORGANISM

15 MENDELS GENETICS

16 Mendel studied 7 traits in peas. *SEED SHAPE *SEED COLOR *POD SHAPE *POD COLOR *FLOWER COLOR *FLOWER LOCATION *STEM SIZE

17

18

19 HE PLANTED EACH TYPE IN A SEPARATE GARDEN GREW THEM UNTIL HE WAS SURE THAT ALL TALL PLANTS PRODUCED TALL PLANTS & ALL ROUND PEA PLANTS PRODUCED ROUND PEAS AND SO ON…

20 IN OTHER WORDS, HE GREW AND POLLINATED PUREBRED PLANTS TALL WITH TALL ROUND PEAS WITH ROUND PEAS SHORT WITH SHORT ETC...

21 THEN HE TRANSFERRED THE POLLEN OF THE TALL PLANT TO THE SHORT PLANT, THE ROUND PEA TO THE WRINKLED PEA, ETC….

22

23 HE FOUND THAT ALL ROUND PEA PLANTS CROSSED WITH WRINKLED PEA PLANTS PRODUCED ROUND PEAS PLANTS WHATEVER HAD CAUSED THE PLANT TO BE WRINKLED HAD DISAPPEARED HE REPEATED THIS WITH EACH PHENOTYPE

24 HE FOUND THAT THE RECESSIVE TRAITS WERE STILL THERE, JUST HIDDEN

25 HE CALLED THE TRAITS THAT WERE SEEN : HE CALLED THE TRAITS THAT WERE NOT SEEN : DOMINANT RECESSIVE

26 HE CALLED THE OFFSPRING WITH ONE DOMINANT FACTOR AND ONE RECESSIVE FACTOR: HYBRID

27 MEIOSIS

28 Nucleus contains the genetic material

29 Chromosomes carry the genes exist in pairs in all cells except sperm and egg cells

30 Genes single determiner of a hereditary trait

31 Cell Division two types Mitosis Meiosis

32 Mitosis cell division for growth this division never ends chromosome pairs are duplicated exactly alike

33 Mitosis Steps of mitosis Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis

34 Dominant gene in a pair, hides the effect of another gene IF YOU RECALL... Recessive gene the gene which is hidden by a dominant gene

35 Gamete mature egg or sperm cell each gamete has half the original number of chromosomes

36 Examples of dominant genes tongue rolling free ear lobes brown hair

37 Examples of recessive genes color red in Holsteins(cows) dwarfism

38 T t Tt tt Meiosis Mitosis

39 Steps of Meiosis Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I

40 Steps of Meiosis Interphase Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis

41 Meiosis cell division of reproductive cells (sperm and egg) each new cell is not exactly like the old one

42 Meiosis allows for random assortment of parental genes

43 Meiosis in each new cell chromosomes are not in pairs each new cell contains half of the original number of chromosomes

44

45

46

47

48

49 CHROMOSOMES CONDENSE BUT DNA DOES NOT DUPLICATE

50 PAIRED CHROMATIDS LINE UP ACROSS MIDDLE OF CELL CHROMATIDS SEPARATE AND ARE PULLED TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF CELL

51 CHROMOSOMES GATHER IN NUCLEI AND CELL DIVIDES FOUR CELLS-EACH HAS NUCLEUS & 23 UNPAIRED CHROMOSOMES

52

53


Download ppt "Genetics GREGOR MENDEL and HIS WORK. Genetics the study of heredity the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google