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Genetics GREGOR MENDEL and HIS WORK
Genetics the study of heredity the way in which traits of parents are passed on to offspring
Austrian Monk Considered the Father of Heredity did experiments with peas and proved that certain characteristics…….. Gregor Mendel
………. Such as color and height, are passed from parent to offspring
Differences all differences in organisms are not caused by genetics some are caused by the environment the conditions under which the animals are raised
Dominant and Recessive Traits
Dominant Traits Dominant traits are characteristics that people see you have
Symbols dominant genes capital letters
Recessive Traits Recessive traits are characteristics that you have which people cannot see
Symbols recessive genes lower case letters
When someone has a recessive trait that can be seen, it means that they inherited one recessive trait from each parent
What are some dominant and recessive traits?
Phenotypes THE EXTERNAL APPEARANCE OF AN ORGANISM
Genotypes THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF AN ORGANISM
Mendel studied 7 traits in peas. *SEED SHAPE *SEED COLOR *POD SHAPE *POD COLOR *FLOWER COLOR *FLOWER LOCATION *STEM SIZE
HE PLANTED EACH TYPE IN A SEPARATE GARDEN GREW THEM UNTIL HE WAS SURE THAT ALL TALL PLANTS PRODUCED TALL PLANTS & ALL ROUND PEA PLANTS PRODUCED ROUND PEAS AND SO ON…
IN OTHER WORDS, HE GREW AND POLLINATED PUREBRED PLANTS TALL WITH TALL ROUND PEAS WITH ROUND PEAS SHORT WITH SHORT ETC...
THEN HE TRANSFERRED THE POLLEN OF THE TALL PLANT TO THE SHORT PLANT, THE ROUND PEA TO THE WRINKLED PEA, ETC….
HE FOUND THAT ALL ROUND PEA PLANTS CROSSED WITH WRINKLED PEA PLANTS PRODUCED ROUND PEAS PLANTS WHATEVER HAD CAUSED THE PLANT TO BE WRINKLED HAD DISAPPEARED HE REPEATED THIS WITH EACH PHENOTYPE
HE FOUND THAT THE RECESSIVE TRAITS WERE STILL THERE, JUST HIDDEN
HE CALLED THE TRAITS THAT WERE SEEN : HE CALLED THE TRAITS THAT WERE NOT SEEN : DOMINANT RECESSIVE
HE CALLED THE OFFSPRING WITH ONE DOMINANT FACTOR AND ONE RECESSIVE FACTOR: HYBRID
Nucleus contains the genetic material
Chromosomes carry the genes exist in pairs in all cells except sperm and egg cells
Genes single determiner of a hereditary trait
Cell Division two types Mitosis Meiosis
Mitosis cell division for growth this division never ends chromosome pairs are duplicated exactly alike
Mitosis Steps of mitosis Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis
Dominant gene in a pair, hides the effect of another gene IF YOU RECALL... Recessive gene the gene which is hidden by a dominant gene
Gamete mature egg or sperm cell each gamete has half the original number of chromosomes
Examples of dominant genes tongue rolling free ear lobes brown hair
Examples of recessive genes color red in Holsteins(cows) dwarfism
T t Tt tt Meiosis Mitosis
Steps of Meiosis Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I
Steps of Meiosis Interphase Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis
Meiosis cell division of reproductive cells (sperm and egg) each new cell is not exactly like the old one
Meiosis allows for random assortment of parental genes
Meiosis in each new cell chromosomes are not in pairs each new cell contains half of the original number of chromosomes
CHROMOSOMES CONDENSE BUT DNA DOES NOT DUPLICATE
PAIRED CHROMATIDS LINE UP ACROSS MIDDLE OF CELL CHROMATIDS SEPARATE AND ARE PULLED TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF CELL
CHROMOSOMES GATHER IN NUCLEI AND CELL DIVIDES FOUR CELLS-EACH HAS NUCLEUS & 23 UNPAIRED CHROMOSOMES
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