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Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–1 Chapter Sixteen Social Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–1 Chapter Sixteen Social Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–1 Chapter Sixteen Social Psychology

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–2 Did You Know That… Revealing too much about yourself when first meeting someone can convey a negative impression? The Japanese are more likely than Americans to attribute their success to luck or fate than to themselves? People tend to believe that attractive people have more desirable?

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–3 Did You Know That… (cont.) In a study of police trainees, friendships were more likely to be formed among those whose names began with the same or adjacent letters of the alphabet? At least 38 people in a quiet urban neighborhood heard the screams of a woman who was viciously attacked by a knife- wielding assailant but did nothing?

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–4 Did You Know That… (cont.) The origins of prejudice may be traced back to ancestral times? Most subjects in a famous but controversial study administered what they believed to be painful and dangerous electric shocks to other subjects when instructed to do so by the experimenter?

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–5 Module 16.1 Perceiving Others

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–6 Module 16.1 Preview Questions What is social perception? What are the major influences on first impressions, and why do first impressions often become lasting impressions? What role do cognitive biases play in the judgments we make about the causes of behavior?

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–7 Module 16.1 Preview Questions (cont.) What are attitudes and how are they acquired? How are attitudes related to behavior, and how do they change in response to persuasive appeals?

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–8 Social Psychology The branch of psychology that studies how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by our social interactions with others. Social Perception: The process by which we form impressions, make judgments, and develop attitudes about the people and events that constitute our social world.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–9 Impression Formation The process by which we form an opinion or impression of another person. Influenced by: –Personal disclosure –Social schemas –Stereotypes Impressions can become self-fulfilling prophecies.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–10 Attributions Personal explanations about the causes of behaviors or events. Two types of attributions –Dispositional Causes: Causes relating to internal characteristics or traits of individuals. –Situational Causes: Causes relating to external or environmental events.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–11 Cognitive Biases in Attribution Fundamental attribution error –Attribute behavior to internal factors –Disregard external situational factors Actor-observer effect –Attribute one’s own behavior to external causes –Attribute others’ behavior to internal causes Self-serving bias –Attribute personal success to internal factors –Attribute failure to external factors

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–12 Attitudes A positive or negative evaluation of persons, objects, or issues. Consists of 3 components: –Cognitions: set of beliefs –Emotions: feelings of liking or disliking –Behaviors: inclinations to act positively or negatively.

13 Figure 16.1: Attitudes

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–14 Sources of Attitudes Our social environment Heredity, through its influence on our: –Intelligence –Temperament –Personality traits

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–15 Attitudes and Behavior Attitudes only modestly linked to behavior Many factors limit this relationship, especially situational constraints.

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–16 Figure 16.2: Elaboration Likelihood Model

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–17 Figure 16.3: Getting Your Message Across: Factors in Persuasive Appeals

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–18 Module 16.2 Relating to Others

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–19 Module 16.2 Preview Questions What are the major determinants of attraction? What factors are linked to helping behavior? What is prejudice, and how does it develop? What can be done to reduce prejudice? What factors contribute to human aggression?

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–20 What Is Attraction? Feelings of liking others Having positive thoughts about them Inclinations to act positively toward them Includes friendships and romantic relationships

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–21 Determinants of Attraction Similarity –Attitudes, appearance, class, race, other similarities Physical attractiveness –Major determinant of initial attraction –Matching hypothesis Proximity –Provides more chances for interacting Reciprocity –Liking others who like us back

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–22 Helping Behavior A form of prosocial behavior. –Behavior that benefits others. Motives underlying helping behavior: –Altruistic motives –Self-centered motives

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–23 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–24 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention (A Closer View)

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–25 Figure 16.4: A Decision- Making Model of Bystander Intervention (A Closer View)

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–26 Influences on Helping Situational ambiguity Perceived cost Diffusion of responsibility Similarity Mood and gender Attributions of the cause of need Social norms

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–27 Prejudice Preconceived attitude, usually unfavorable, formed without critical thought or evaluation of the facts. Components –Cognitive: biased beliefs about other groups. –Emotions: dislike toward members of other groups. –Behavior: discrimination or biased/unfair treatment of people based on group membership.

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–28 How Does Prejudice Develop? Negative stereotypes that are learned or acquired Direct experience Cognitive biases –Out-group negativism –In-group favoritism –Out-group homogeneity

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–29 Prejudice: Individual Differences Learning experiences Cognitive style –Universalist orientation: less prejudiced Authoritarian personality style –Rigidity, obedience and respect for authority

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–30 Effects of Stereotyping and Prejudice Racism is the negative bias held toward members of other racial groups. –Significant source of environmental stress for many minority group members. Stereotyping can lead to lowered expectations. Stereotypical beliefs an become internalized. Stereotype threat can lead to poorer performances.

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–31 Figure 16.5: An Experimental Study of Stereotype Threat

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–32 Reducing Prejudice: Allport’s Contact Hypothesis Reduce prejudice by bringing groups into close contact Facilitated by: –Social and institutional support –Acquaintance potential –Equal status –Intergroup cooperation

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–33 Reducing Prejudice: Individual Efforts Teach empathy Avoid stereotypical thinking –Rejecting negative thoughts –Rehearsing positive images Diversity education

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–34 Is Human Aggression Instinctual? Fighting instinct as basic survival mechanism Aggression among males used to: –Establish dominance –Defend territory –Claim food, mates, resources Human aggression may be too complex to be based on instinct.

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–35 Influences on Aggression Biological Influences –Violent behavior and abnormal brain circuitry –Male sex hormone, testosterone –Inherited tendencies Learning Influences –Aggressive behavior learned like other behaviors –Observational learning, reinforcement

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–36 Influences on Aggression Sociocultural Influences –Violence occurs within social contexts –Violence as social influence tactic Alcohol use –Strongly linked to aggressive behavior –Loosens inhibitions –Impairs cognitions, sensitivity, perception

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–37 Influences on Aggression Emotional Influences –Frustration, anger may trigger aggression Environmental Influences –Rising temperatures, more aggression –Extreme high temperatures, dampen aggression

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–38 Module 16.3 Group Influences on Individual Behavior

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–39 Module 16.3 Preview Questions What is social identity? What was the significance of the Asch study on conformity? What are compliance techniques based upon? Why were Milgram’s findings so disturbing, and why were his methods so controversial?

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–40 Module 16.3 Preview Questions (cont.) How does the presence of others affect individual performance? What are deindividuation, group polarization, and groupthink?

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–41 Our Social Selves Personal Identity: Involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals. Social Identity: Involves our sense of ourselves as members of particular groups. –“Group identity”

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–42 Conformity Tendency to adjust one’s behavior to actual or perceived social pressures. What pressures do we conform to? –General social norms –Group or peer norms Asch’s classic study on conformity

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–43 Figure 16.6: Stimuli Similar to Those Used in the Asch Conformity Studies

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–44 Why Do People Conform? People assume majority must be correct. People value group acceptance more than being correct. People feel that it is easier to go along than disagree with the group.

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–45 Influences on Conformity Gender differences –Women, by a small margin, more likely to conform. Cultural differences –People from collectivistic cultures tend to conform more. Personality factors –Low self-esteem, shyness, desire to be liked Situational factors

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–46 Compliance The process of acceding to the requests or demands of others. Factors influencing compliance: –Appeals from a recognized authority –Desire for social validation –Desire for consistency

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–47 Compliance Techniques Foot-in-the-Door Technique: Small then larger favor Bait-and-Switch Technique: Item not available as advertised Low-ball Technique: Low price becomes higher Door-in-the-Face Technique: Excessively large, then smaller request

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–48 Obedience Compliance with commands or orders issued of others, usually authority figures. Milgram’s research –“Teacher” shocks “learner” –Most subjects obeyed, delivering high voltage shock. –Demonstrates potential for ordinary people to do harm by following authority.

49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–49 Why Do People Obey Immoral Commands? Legitimization of authority –Early socialization –Taught to obey authority figures Social comparison Foot-in-the-door effect

50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–50 Social Facilitation Tendency for people to work better or harder when working in the presence of others. Exposure to others induces energizing arousal. Increases performance of dominant responses. –Not always correct response

51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–51 Figure 16.7: Effects of the Presence of Others

52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–52 Social Loafing Tendency for people to apply less effort working as members of a group. More likely when performance is not being evaluated. Reduced with: –More appealing tasks –Visibility of individual performance –Individual accountability –Public feedback on individual performance

53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–53 Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness that may occur when one acts in concert with the actions of a crowd. May be destructive –Deviant, reckless mob behavior Results from: –Anonymity in the crowd. –Shifting attention from one’s own thoughts and standards to the actions of the group.

54 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–54 Group Decision Making Group Polarization: Tendency for group members to adopt views more extreme but in the same direction as their original views. –Risky-shift phenomenon may occur Why does it occur? –Social validation –Normative influences

55 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–55 Groupthink Tendency for members of a group to lose ability for critical evaluation. Pressure to conform prevents debate Likely with: –Members strongly attached to group –External threat present –Strong-minded leader

56 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–56 Avoiding Group Think Encourage consideration of all alternatives Group leader avoids stating preferences Outside opinions and analyses Encourage “devil’s advocate” Subdivide into independent groups Meetings to reassess and evaluate new information

57 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–57 Module 16.4 Application: Psychology Goes to Work

58 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–58 Module 16.4 Preview Question What are some areas of interest to industrial/organizational psychologists today?

59 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–59 Industrial/Organizational Psychology Studies people at work and organizations in which they work. Key areas of interest: –Job satisfaction –Adjustment to a changing workplace

60 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–60 Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Qualities of job –Status, pay, benefits –Interesting and fulfilling Personality traits of employees –Self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability Fit between attributional style and amount of control at work

61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16–61 Adjustment to a Changing Workplace Challenges of the changing workplace –Less secure –Changes in technology –Flexible work shifts, locations Organizational culture: System of shared values and norms within an organization. –Develops to fit the needs of workers and the workplace.


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