1 REDT Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB) ‘Firming Up’ Wind Energy & The DECC Gigha Project in ScotlandMeitheal Na Gaoithe Conference, KilkennyJohn Ward, REDT Energy Ltd. Dublin.1
2 AgendaBackground to the Technology DevelopmentVRFB – What is it ?Review of VRFB technology - performance at stack level and scale up to grid systemsApplications in Brief & Progress to dateDemonstration Project – GighaConclusion
3 Key features for reliability: VRFB – What is it ?Key features for reliability:Power and energy independentScalable from 5kW to 10MW, with3 to18 hours discharge durationDeep discharge capabilityCapable of 10,000 cycle life withminimal degradation >20 year lifePartial cycles have no effect on system lifeSafe operationAmbient temperature, non-flammable, environmentally sound– zero emissions.
4 Vanadium – What is it ? The 23rd element in the periodic table 23 P NElectron shellsVanadium is a silverish transition metal (the valence electrons exist in more than one shell). In normal states, vanadium atoms have 23 protons, 23 electrons, and 28 neutrons. Very High Columbic Efficiency -98%
5 VRFB 5kW Stack – Building block All polymer materials, high integrity sealed system Low impedancemembrane electrode structureCharge/discharge ratio 1:15kWe nominal,8.5kWe peak (15 mins)Future target of 15kW
6 Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Benefits Low LCOE >20 year lifeLowest cost over life in classModular from 5kW to 5MW to match loads, scale duration from hours to daysStack life > 10,000 cycles, electrolyte indefinite life, re-usable & recyclablePerformanceDeep discharge cycles, uses 100% of available capacityCharge retention, almost indefinite in standby mode75-85% round trip efficiencyPartial cycles have 0 effect
7 Timeline of development Low cost manufactured product launch phase2000: REDT Started: Small 5kW stack developed2012: Technology proven2013: Large stack 1.2MWh order2014: Low cost outsourced manufacturingJABILDemonstration phase: Volume productionAutomationLarge volumeR&D cost downR&D phase2014: 7 units10 demo unit facility launchTested quality process productionR&D cost down plan2013: 60kWh system in Portugal
9 Containerised modular VRFB system designs -standardised for volume production 5-3010-305-6010-6015-18030-18045-18060-180
10 ISO Standard 20’ container section – 60kW x 180kWh 12 x 5kW rated stacks per batteryInsulated air flow thermal control systemArgon blanketed electrolyteSafety – leakage, fire, hydrogen detection96,000 Litres of electrolyte per containerExcess electrolyte enables deep discharge
11 The Isle of Gigha and the Application Community owned WindPopulation ~150Tourism, Farming, BrewingRenewables potentialSub-sea cableOne of the longest 11 kV feeders to mainlandRemote and wild
12 Regional Context – The Western Isles Argyll generation severely constrainedSSE cable upgrades scheduled for 2015Test site for VRFB selected by CES
13 The Isle of Gigha and the Application Current position:New (4th) wind turbine installed -exceeds T&D limits330 kW constrained to 225 kW at 0.85 p.f.Line capacity upgrades not yet availableLose 3 GWh over asset lifePrimary objective:Constrained energy recovery with on- peak dispatchEnhanced FIT benefitOpportunity to increase RE generation by 30%
14 VRFB Applications – Grid balancing services Typical Energy Storage application for grid peak shaving with baseload power
15 Parker SSD EGT Control System Parker SSD PCS working with the REDT VRFB has a system response time of less than 5m/s and can therefore perform multiple intra-cycle control functions. Electronics and cable inductance are limiting factors not the energy storage system itself.
16 Firm Frequency Response (FFR) Profile Gigha 105kW rated system - RoCoF
19 Constrained Energy Profile – Typical day Gigha system 105kW x 1.26MWh Blue = ESS kW, Charging when negative Red = Stored energy MWh zero SOC
20 System Services Summary Frequency ControlVoltage ControlRegulation of CurtailmentArbitrageImprovement of output predictionPost demonstration stage the technology will be rolled out to other islands
21 Energy storage is entering the mainstream ConclusionsEnergy storage is entering the mainstreamThe Technology is constantly evolving and becoming cheaper – full suite of services and dispatch for c.5 euro/MwhREDT will be ready for large scale deployment supporting wind energy & Solar in Q3 2015Within 5 years there will be large scale deployment of distributed storage worldwideMarket for storage globally is $10Bn by 2017(19), 33% of this is estimated to be flow batteriesPossibility of an entirely renewable power system…?