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PLANTS review Chapters 29, 30, 38 Bryophytes & Pteridophytes Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Angiosperm Reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "PLANTS review Chapters 29, 30, 38 Bryophytes & Pteridophytes Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Angiosperm Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANTS review Chapters 29, 30, 38 Bryophytes & Pteridophytes Gymnosperms & Angiosperms Angiosperm Reproduction

2 One of the four main types of land plants that contains mosses and lacks vascular tissue BRYOPHYTES Which is the dominant stage in the life cycle of this group? sporophyte gametophyte gametophyte

3 One of the four main types of land plants that contains ferns and has vascular tissue Pteridophytes Which is the dominant stage in the life cycle of this group? sporophyte gametophyte sporophyte

4 One of the four main types of land plants that contains flowering plants and possess vascular tissue Angiosperms Which is the dominant stage in the life cycle of this group? sporophyte gametophyte sporophyte

5 One of the four main types of land plants that contains the conifers, have “naked” seeds, and vascular tissue Gymnosperms Which is the dominant stage in the life cycle of this group? sporophyte gametophyte sporophyte

6 The mutualistic association of plant roots and fungi mycorrhizae 90% of all plant species today are in which group? Angiosperms (flowering plants)

7 Evidence suggests that land plants evolved from which group of protists 500 million years ago? Green algae (Charophytes)

8 What evidence suggests that land plants evolved from green algae 500 million years ago? Both produce cellulose for cell walls in same unique way Both only groups with peroxisomes (to reduce effects of photorespiration) Similar sperm structure Make cell plates during mitosis is similar way Nuclear and chloroplast DNA closely related

9 If a plant is “nonvascular” it means it doesn’t have _____________ xylem or phloem The female gametangia in plants is called the __________ archegonia antheridia archegonia

10 All land plants have a life cycle that consists of two multicellular stage called ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS Another key feature of plants is the production of gametes in multicellular organs called gametangia

11 The gametophyte stage is __________ haploid diploid haploid The male gametangia in plants is called the __________ archegonia antheridia antheridia

12 The zygote produced by fusion of sperm and egg is ________ haploid diploid diploid What advantages did becoming terrestrial provide plants? Increased sunlight (unfiltered by water) More carbon dioxide in air than water soils rich in nutrients fewer predators

13 The sporophyte stage is __________ haploid diploid diploid What challenges did plants face when they became terrestrial? Lack of water, dessication, lack of structural support against gravity

14 The sporophyte divides using _________to produce spores. mitosis meiosis meiosis The antheridia in the gametophyte produces____________ Multiple sperm

15 The archegonia in a gametophyte produces _____________ The gametophyte divides using _________to produce gametes. mitosis meiosis mitosis a single egg

16 Which plant group requires water for their sperm to swim to the egg? All seedless plants Bryophytes & Pteridophytes Structures in the sporophyte stage where meiosis occurs to produce spores sporangia

17 Spores produced by plants are ____________ haploid diploid haploid The megasporagium, megaspore, and protective tissue around them make an _________ ovule

18 What are the 5 crucial adaptations that led to the success of seed plants? Reduced gametophytes (protects antheridia/archegonia) Heterospory (2 types of spores) Ovules (protect egg/developing zygote) Pollen (no need for water) Seeds

19 Megaspores produce ______________ Female gametophytes The production of TWO types of spores seen in seed plants is called ___________ heterospory

20 Microspores produce ______________ male gametophytes A pollen grain contains ____________ 2 sperm nuclei

21 Identify the following flower parts Anther filament stamen stigma style ovary Carpel ovule sepal petal

22 In angiosperms and gymnosperms a male gametopyte = a _______ Pollen grain What advantages do seeds have compared to spores? Seeds are multicellular with several layers of tissue protecting embryo Seeds have supply of stored energy so embryo can wait for good germination conditions and use stored energy for early growth

23 Plants with “naked” seeds are called __________ Gymnosperms In a flowering plant the mature ovaries are called _________ fruits

24 Angiosperm that has one cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination, scattered vascular tissue and flowering parts in multiples of threes monocot Give an example of the above Corn, orchids, lilies, grasses

25 Angiosperm that has two cotyledon in the seed, net leaf veination, vascular tissue in a ring and flowering parts in multiples of fours or fives Eudicot (dicot) Give an example of the above Roses, peas, beans, oaks

26 Flowering plants are classified in the PHYLUM ______________ ANTHOPHYTA The stamens with anthers are the _________ part of a flower. male female male

27 The ________ in a flower is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. carpel Plant pollen is _________ haploid diploid haploid

28 Gymnosperms have seeds often exposed on modified leaves called _________ cones The carpel including the stigma and style is the _________ part of a flower. male female female

29 CONTRAST MONOCOTS & DICOTS one two MONOCOTSDICOTS Number of cotyledons in seed Vein pattern Flower parts in multiples of ? Location of vascular tissue Examples parallelnet Multiples of 3’s Multiples of 4’s & 5’s Corn, orchids, lilies, grasses Peas, beans, roses, oaks scattered In ring

30 Mosses, hornworts, and liverworts belong in which group of plants? Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) As plants evolved from algae to angiosperms which generation increases in dominance? sporophyte

31 Most angiosperms are _____________ meaning they have both male and female parts on the same flower. monoecious Ferns, horsetails, club mosses belong in which group of plants? Pterophytes

32 Ginko, cycads, Ephedra, and conifers belong in which group of plants? Gymnosperms Plants with male and female flowers on separate plants are called _____________ dioecious

33 Flowering plants belong in which group of plants? Angiosperms How do monoecious plants prevent self pollination? Male and female parts may be physically separated (anthers/stigma at different heights) or mature at different times.

34 Double fertilization is only seen in which group of plants? Angiosperms Seed leaves are called _____________ cotyledons

35 CONTRAST PLANT REPRODUCTION MossesFerns BryophytesPteridophytesGymnospermsAngiosperms Example Dominant generation Alternate generation How sperm move Relationship of gametophyte & sporophyte Ginko, conifersFlowering plants gametophyte sporophyte gametophyte (small) sporophyte (tree) sporophyte Requires water to swim Sporophyte grows on top of & provided nourishment by female gametophyte Sporophyte grows out of female archegonium of gametophyte; receives nourishment; independent at maturity Wind, insects carry pollen gametophyte (pollen, ovary) Gametophyte reduced in size; relies on sporophyte for protection and nourishment Wind, animals carry pollen gametophyte (pollen/ovule) Gametophyte reduced in size; relies on sporophyte for protection and nourishment

36 Many angiosperms and their pollinators show which pattern of evolution? coevolution Endosperm is __ n 3

37 7. _______________________ 8. _______________________ 9. ________________________ 10. _______________________ Match the derived characters with the correct branch points in the diagram embryos Vascular tissue From:Campbell and Reece Chap 30 Self quiz seeds flowers Flowers Embryos Seeds Vascular tissue

38 Flowers that have both male and female parts are called ____________ monoecious Tell what happens to the 2 sperm nuclei in double fertilization One sperm fertilizes the egg and becomes the embryo; the 2 nd sperm nuclei fertilizes 2 polar bodies and becomes the endosperm

39 Plants that produce flowers that have either male or female parts, but not both are called _____________ dioecious Mature ovaries = __________ fruits

40 In angiosperms diploid cells in pollen sacs (microsporangia) undergo ________ to make haploid microspores mitosis meiosis meiosis In angiosperm reproduction, the male gametophyte = _________ Pollen grain

41 In an angiosperm seed the embryonic root is called the __________ radicle In angiosperm reproduction, seeds grow into __________ gametophytes sporophytes sporophytes

42 In angiosperms diploid cells in pollen sacs (microsporangia) undergo meiosis to make haploid _________________ microspores In angiosperm reproduction, the female gametophyte = _________ Embryo sac

43 In angiosperms diploid cells in ovules undergo meiosis to make 4 haploid _________________ megaspores In angiosperms, the ovule develops into the _______ and the ovary develops into the __________ seed fruit

44 The transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma of a flower on another plant is called _____________ pollination The shoot tip with miniature leaves attached inside a seed is called the _________ epicotyl

45 Tell some mechanisms that prevent plants from self pollinating Dioecious flowers- pollen making and egg making flowers are on separate plants Monoecious flowers- male and female parts are physically separated by height or mature at different times Molecular barriers-biochemical block prevents pollen from same plant from developing pollen tube and fertilizing own egg


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