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PLANT DIVERSITY I. YOU MUST KNOW… WHY LAND PLANTS ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE EVOLVED FROM GREEN ALGAE SOME OF THE DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES OF LIFE ON LAND.

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Presentation on theme: "PLANT DIVERSITY I. YOU MUST KNOW… WHY LAND PLANTS ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE EVOLVED FROM GREEN ALGAE SOME OF THE DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES OF LIFE ON LAND."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANT DIVERSITY I

2 YOU MUST KNOW… WHY LAND PLANTS ARE THOUGHT TO HAVE EVOLVED FROM GREEN ALGAE SOME OF THE DISADVANTAGES AND ADVANTAGES OF LIFE ON LAND THAT PLANTS HAVE A UNIQUE LIFE CYCLE TERMED ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS WITH A GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION AND A SPOROPHYTE GENERATION

3 YOU MUST KNOW… THE ROLE OF ANTHERIDIA AND ARCHEGONIA IN GAMETOPHYTES THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF BRYOPHYTES THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS

4 CONCEPT 29.1 LAND PLANTS EVOLVED FROM GREEN ALGAE

5 CHAROPHYTES – PLANTS EVOLVED FROM GREEN ALGAE – EVIDENCE IS: PRODUCE CELLULOSE FOR CELL WALLS IN THE SAME FASHION THE PEROXISOMES HAVE ENZYMES THAT REDUCE THE LOSS OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS IN PHOTORESPIRATION SPERM STRUCTURE IS CLOSELY RELATED BOTH PRODUCE CELL PLATES IN THE SAME WAY DURING CELL DIVISION RELATED ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR AND CHLOROPLAST GENES

6 MOVEMENT ON LAND ADVANTAGE – INCREASED SUNLIGHT, MORE CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE, SOILS RICH IN NUTRIENTS, FEWER PREDATORS CHALLENGE – LACK OF WATER, DESICCATION, LACK OF STRUCTURAL SUPPORT AGAINST GRAVITY

7 LAND PLANTS LIFE CYCLE ALTERNATION OF GENERATION (2 MULTICELLULAR STAGES) GAMETOPHYTE STAGE – PLANT CELLS ARE HAPLOID (GAMETES ARE PRODUCED) SPOROPHYTE STAGE – PLANT CELLS ARE DIPLOID (ZYGOTE) THAT DIVIDE MITOTICALLY SPOROPHYTE PRODUCES SPORES BY MEIOSIS ZYGOTE DEVELOPS IN FEMALE PARENT

8 GAMETANGIA – ORGANS THAT PRODUCES GAMETES ARCHEGONIA – FEMALE GAMETANGIA – PRODUCES ONE EGG ANTHERIDIA – MALE GAMETANGIA – PRODUCES MANY SPERM

9 CONCEPT 29.2 MOSSES AND OTHER NONVASCULAR PLANTS HAVE THEIR LIFE CYCLES DOMINATED BY GAMETOPHYTES

10

11 BRYOPHYTES 3 PHYLA – MOSSES, LIVERWORTS, AND HORNWORTS NONVASCULAR (NO XYLEM OR PHLOEM TISSUE) GAMETOPHYTES ARE THE DOMINANT STAGE OF THE LIFE CYCLE ARCHEGONIA AND ANTHERIDIA ARE FOUND ON THE GAMETOPHYTES REQUIRE WATER FOR THE SPERM TO SWIM TO THE EGG DURING FERTILIZATION

12 BRYOPHYTES ALTHOUGH PHOTOSYNTHETIC WHEN YOUNG, MUST ABSORB WATER, SUGARS, AND OTHER NUTRIENTS FROM PARENTAL GAMETOPHYTES

13 CONCEPT 29.3 FERNS AND OTHER SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS WERE THE FIRST PLANTS TO GROW TALL

14 PLANTS GREW TALLER BECAUSE OF VASCULAR TISSUES, GAINING ACCESS TO LIGHT SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANT LIFE CYCLE IS DOMINATED BY THE SPOROPHYTE STAGE MEIOSIS OCCURS IN STRUCTURES CALLED SPORANGIA, PRODUCING HAPLOID SPORES CONTINUE TO REQUIRE WATER FOR THE SPERM TO REACH THE EGG


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