14-2 Learning Objectives Understand the link forged between the management dilemma and the communication instrument by the management-research question hierarchy Understand the influence of the communication method on instrument design Understand the three general classes of information and what each contributes to the instrument
14-3 Learning Objectives Understand the influence of question content, question wording, response strategy, and preliminary analysis planning on question construction Understand each of the numerous question design issues influencing instrument quality, reliability, and validity Understand the sources for measurement questions Understand the importance of pretesting questions and instruments
14-4 Exhibit 14-1 Overall Flowchart for Instrument Design
14-5 Exhibit 14-2 Phase 1
14-6 Strategic Concerns in Instrument Design What type of scale is needed? What communication approach will be used? Should the questions be structured? Should the questioning be disguised?
14-7 Technology Affects Questionnaire Development Write questionnaires more quickly Create visually driven instruments Eliminate manual data entry Save time in data analysis WebSurveyor used to write an instrument.
14-8 Disguising Study Objectives Situations where disguise is unnecessary Situations where disguise is unnecessary Willingly shared, Conscious-level information Reluctantly shared, Conscious-level information Knowable, Limited-conscious- level information Subconscious-level information
14-9 Exhibit 14-3 Dummy Table for American Eating Habits Age Use of Convenience Foods __________________________________________________ Always Use Use Frequently Use SometimesRarely UseNever Use
14-10 Exhibit 14-4 Phase 2
14-11 Question Categories and Structure Administrative Classification Target
14-12 Question Content Should this question be asked? Is the question of proper scope and coverage? Can the participant adequately answer this question as asked? Will the participant willingly answer this question as asked?
14-13 Question Wording Criteria Shared vocabulary Single meaning Misleading assumptions Adequate alternatives Personalized Biased
14-14 Response Strategy Factors Objectives of the study Participant’s level of information Degree to which participants have thought through topic Ease and clarity with which participant communicates Participant’s motivation to share
14-15 Free-Response Strategy What factors influenced your enrollment in Metro U? ____________________________________________
14-16 Dichotomous Response Strategy Did you attend the A Day at College program at Metro U? Yes No
14-17 Multiple Choice Response Strategy Which one of the following factors was most influential in your decision to attend Metro U? Good academic standing Specific program of study desired Enjoyable campus life Many friends from home High quality of faculty
14-18 Checklist Response Strategy Which of the following factors influenced your decision to enroll in Metro U? Check all that apply. Tuition cost Specific program of study desired Parents’ preferences Opinion of brother or sister Many friends from home attend High quality of faculty
14-19 Rating Response Strategy Strongly influential Somewhat influential Not at all influential Good academic reputation Enjoyable campus life Many friends High quality faculty Semester calendar
14-20 Ranking Please rank-order your top three factors From the following list based on their Influence in encouraging you to apply to Metro U. Use 1 to indicate the most encouraging factor, 2 the next most encouraging factor, etc. _____ Opportunity to play collegiate sports _____ Closeness to home _____ Enjoyable campus life _____ Good academic reputation _____ High quality of faculty
14-21 Exhibit 14-7 Characteristics of Response Strategies CharacteristicDichotomous Multiple ChoiceChecklistRating Rank Ordering Free Response Type of ScaleNominalNominal, ordinal, or ratio NominalOrdinal or interval OrdinalNominal or ratio Usual Number of Answer Alternatives Provided 23 to 1010 or fewer3 to 710 or fewerNone Desired Number of Participant Answers 1110 or fewer1 per item7 or fewer1 Used to Provide... ClassificationClassification, order, or specific numerical estimate ClassificationOrder or distance OrderClassification (of idea), order, or specific numerical estimate
14-22 Exhibit 14-6 Internet Survey Response Options
14-23 Exhibit 14-6 continued
14-24 Exhibit 14-6 continued
14-25 Exhibit 14-8 Sources of Questions Handbook of Marketing Scales The Gallup Poll Cumulative Index Measures of Personality and Social-Psychological Attitudes Measures of Political Attitudes Index to International Public Opinion Sourcebook of Harris National Surveys Marketing Scales Handbook American Social Attitudes Data Sourcebook
14-26 Exhibit 14-8 Web Sources of Questions Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social ResearchInteruniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research iPoll Online Survey Research/ Public Opinion CentersOnline Survey Research/ Public Opinion Centers Survey Research Library, Florida State UniversitySurvey Research Library, Florida State University The Odum Institute
14-27 Exhibit 14-9 Phase 3
14-28 Guidelines for Question Sequencing Interesting topics early Classification questions later Sensitive questions later Simple items early Transition between topics
14-29 Illustrating the Funnel Approach How do you think this country is getting along in its relations with other countries? How do you think we are doing in our relations with Iran? Do you think we ought to be dealing with Iran differently than we are now? (If yes) What should we be doing differently? Some people say we should get tougher with Iran and others think we are too tough as it is; how do you feel about it?
14-30 Branching Question
14-31 Exhibit Components of Questionnaire
14-32 Overcoming Instrument Problems Build rapport Redesign question process Explore alternatives Use other methods Pretest