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Chapter Fourteen Data Preparation 14-1 © 2007 Prentice Hall
14-2 Chapter Outline 1) Overview 2) The Data Preparation Process 3) Questionnaire Checking 4) Editing i. Treatment of Unsatisfactory Responses 5) Coding i. Coding Questions ii. Code-book iii. Coding Questionnaires
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-3 Chapter Outline 6) Transcribing 7) Data Cleaning i.Consistency Checks ii.Treatment of Missing Responses 8) Statistically Adjusting the Data i.Weighting ii.Variable Respecification iii.Scale Transformation 9) Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy Adjusting the Data
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-4 Chapter Outline 10) A Classification of Statistical Techniques 11) Ethics in Marketing Research 12) Summary
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-5 Data Preparation Process Fig. 14.1 Select Data Analysis Strategy Prepare Preliminary Plan of Data Analysis Check Questionnaire Edit Code Transcribe Clean Data Statistically Adjust the Data
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-6 Questionnaire Checking A questionnaire returned from the field may be unacceptable for several reasons. Parts of the questionnaire may be incomplete. The pattern of responses may indicate that the respondent did not understand or follow the instructions. The responses show little variance. One or more pages are missing. The questionnaire is received after the preestablished cutoff date. The questionnaire is answered by someone who does not qualify for participation.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-7 Editing Treatment of Unsatisfactory Results Returning to the Field – The questionnaires with unsatisfactory responses may be returned to the field, where the interviewers recontact the respondents. Assigning Missing Values – If returning the questionnaires to the field is not feasible, the editor may assign missing values to unsatisfactory responses. Discarding Unsatisfactory Respondents – In this approach, the respondents with unsatisfactory responses are simply discarded.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-8 Coding Coding means assigning a code, usually a number, to each possible response to each question. The code includes an indication of the column position (field) and data record it will occupy. Coding Questions Fixed field codes, which mean that the number of records for each respondent is the same and the same data appear in the same column(s) for all respondents, are highly desirable. If possible, standard codes should be used for missing data. Coding of structured questions is relatively simple, since the response options are predetermined. In questions that permit a large number of responses, each possible response option should be assigned a separate column.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-9 Coding Guidelines for coding unstructured questions: Category codes should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Only a few (10% or less) of the responses should fall into the “other” category. Category codes should be assigned for critical issues even if no one has mentioned them. Data should be coded to retain as much detail as possible.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-10 Codebook A codebook contains coding instructions and the necessary information about variables in the data set. A codebook generally contains the following information: column number record number variable number variable name question number instructions for coding
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-11 Coding Questionnaires The respondent code and the record number appear on each record in the data. The first record contains the additional codes: project code, interviewer code, date and time codes, and validation code. It is a good practice to insert blanks between parts.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-12 An Illustrative Computer File Records 1-345-67-8... 26...3577 Record 1 00113101 6544234553 5 Record 11 00213101 5564435433 4 Record 21 00313101 4655243324 4 Record 31 00413101 5463244645 6 Record 2701 27113155 6652354435 5 Fields Column Numbers Table 14.1
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-13 Codebook Excerpt Fig. 14.2
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-14 Example of Questionnaire Coding Fig. 14.3
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-15 Data Transcription Fig. 14.4 Transcribed Data CATI/ CAPI Keypunching via CRT Terminal Optical Scanning Mark Sense Forms Computerized Sensory Analysis Verification:Correct Keypunching Errors Disks Magnetic Tapes Computer Memory Raw Data
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-16 Data Cleaning Consistency Checks Consistency checks identify data that are out of range, logically inconsistent, or have extreme values. Computer packages like SPSS, SAS, EXCEL and MINITAB can be programmed to identify out-of- range values for each variable and print out the respondent code, variable code, variable name, record number, column number, and out-of-range value. Extreme values should be closely examined.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-17 Data Cleaning Treatment of Missing Responses Substitute a Neutral Value – A neutral value, typically the mean response to the variable, is substituted for the missing responses. Substitute an Imputed Response – The respondents' pattern of responses to other questions are used to impute or calculate a suitable response to the missing questions. In casewise deletion, cases, or respondents, with any missing responses are discarded from the analysis. In pairwise deletion, instead of discarding all cases with any missing values, the researcher uses only the cases or respondents with complete responses for each calculation.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-18 Statistically Adjusting the Data Weighting In weighting, each case or respondent in the database is assigned a weight to reflect its importance relative to other cases or respondents. Weighting is most widely used to make the sample data more representative of a target population on specific characteristics. Yet another use of weighting is to adjust the sample so that greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-19 Statistically Adjusting the Data Use of Weighting for Representativeness Years ofSamplePopulation EducationPercentagePercentageWeight Elementary School 0 to 7 years2.494.231.70 8 years1.262.191.74 High School 1 to 3 years6.398.651.35 4 years25.3929.241.15 College 1 to 3 years22.3329.421.32 4 years15.0212.010.80 5 to 6 years14.947.360.49 7 years or more12.186.900.57 Totals100.00100.00
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-20 Statistically Adjusting the Data – Variable Respecification Variable respecification involves the transformation of data to create new variables or modify existing variables. E.G., the researcher may create new variables that are composites of several other variables. Dummy variables are used for respecifying categorical variables. The general rule is that to respecify a categorical variable with K categories, K- 1 dummy variables are needed.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-21 Statistically Adjusting the Data – Variable Respecification Product UsageOriginalDummy Variable Code CategoryVariable CodeX 1 X 2 X 3 Nonusers1100 Light users2010 Medium users3001 Heavy users4000 Note that X 1 = 1 for nonusers and 0 for all others. Likewise, X 2 = 1 for light users and 0 for all others, and X 3 = 1 for medium users and 0 for all others. In analyzing the data, X 1, X 2, and X 3 are used to represent all user/nonuser groups.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-22 Statistically Adjusting the Data – Scale Transformation and Standardization Scale transformation involves a manipulation of scale values to ensure comparability with other scales or otherwise make the data suitable for analysis. A more common transformation procedure is standardization. Standardized scores, Z i, may be obtained as: Z i = (X i - )/s x X
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-23 Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy Earlier Steps (1, 2, & 3) of the Marketing Research Process Known Characteristics of the Data Data Analysis Strategy Properties of Statistical Techniques Background and Philosophy of the Researcher Fig. 14.5
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-24 A Classification of Univariate Techniques Fig. 14.6 Independent Related Independent Related * Two- Group test * Z test * One-Way ANOVA * Paired t test * Chi-Square * Mann-Whitney * Median * K-S * K-W ANOVA * Sign * Wilcoxon * McNemar * Chi-Square Metric Data Non-numeric Data Univariate Techniques One Sample Two or More Samples One Sample Two or More Samples * t test * Z test * Frequency * Chi-Square * K-S * Runs * Binomial
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-25 A Classification of Multivariate Techniques Fig. 14.7 More Than One Dependent Variable * Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Covariance * Canonical Correlation * Multiple Discriminant Analysis * Cross- Tabulation * Analysis of Variance and Covariance * Multiple Regression * Conjoint Analysis * Factor Analysis One Dependent Variable Variable Interdependence Interobject Similarity * Cluster Analysis * Multidimensional Scaling Dependence Technique Interdependence Technique Multivariate Techniques
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-26 Restaurant Preference Data Table 14.2
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-27 Nielsen’s Internet Survey: Does It Carry Any Weight? The Nielsen Media Research Company, a longtime player in television-related marketing research has come under fire from the various TV networks for its surveying techniques. Additionally, in another potentially large, new revenue business, Internet surveying, Nielsen is encountering serious questions concerning the validity of its survey results. Due to the tremendous impact of electronic commerce on the business world, advertisers need to know how many people are doing business on the Internet in order to decide if it would be lucrative to place their ads online. Nielsen performed a survey for CommerceNet, a group of companies that includes Sun Microsystems and American Express, to help determine the number of total users on the Internet.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-28 Nielsen’s Internet Survey: Does It Carry Any Weight? Statisticians believe the numbers reported by Nielsen may be incorrect in that the weighting used to help match the sample to the population may be flawed. Weighting must be used to prevent research from being skewed toward one demographic segment. Nielsen weighted for gender but not for education which may have skewed the population toward educated adults.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-29 Nielsen’s Internet Survey: Does It Carry Any Weight?. Nielsen then weighted the survey by age and income after they had already weighted it for gender. Statisticians also feel that this is incorrect because weighting must occur simultaneously, not in separate calculations. Nielsen does not believe the concerns about their sample are legitimate and feel that they have not erred in weighting the survey. However, due to the fact that most third parties have not endorsed Nielsen’s methods, the validity of their research remains to be established. Nielsen//NetRatings, using a different methodology, reported 204 million current digital media universe and 144 million active digital media universe for March 2006 in the US.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-30 SPSS Windows Using the Base module, out-of-range values can be selected using the SELECT IF command. These cases, with the identifying information (subject ID, record number, variable name, and variable value) can then be printed using the LIST or PRINT commands. The Print command will save active cases to an external file. If a formatted list is required, the SUMMARIZE command can be used. SPSS Data Entry can facilitate data preparation. You can verify respondents have answered completely by setting rules. These rules can be used on existing datasets to validate and check the data, whether or not the questionnaire used to collect the data was constructed in Data Entry. Data Entry allows you to control and check the entry of data through three types of rules: validation, checking, and skip and fill rules. While the missing values can be treated within the context of the Base module, SPSS Missing Values Analysis can assist in diagnosing missing values and replacing missing values with estimates. TextSmart by SPSS can help in the coding and analysis of open-ended responses.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-31 SPSS Windows: Creating Overall Evaluation 1. Select TRANSFORM 2. Click on COMPUTE 3. Type “overall” in the TARGET VARIABLE box. 4. Click on “quality” and move it to the NUMERIC EXPRESSIONS box. 5. Click on the “+” sign. 6. Click on “quantity” and move it to the NUMERIC EXPRESSIONS box. 7. Click on the “+” sign
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-32 Creating Overall Evaluation 8. Click on “value” and move it to the NUMERIC EXPRESSIONS box. 9. Click on the “+” sign 10. Click on “service” and move it to the NUMERIC EXPRESSIONS box. 11. Click on TYPE & LABEL under the TARGET VARIABLE box and type “Overall Evaluation.” Click on CONTINUE. 12. Click OK.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-33 SPSS Windows: Recoding Income 1. Select TRANSFORM 2. Click on RECODE and select INTO DIFFERENT VARIABLES… 3. Click on income and move it to NUMERIC VARIABLE OUTPUT VARIABLE box. 4. Type “rincome” in OUTPUT VARIABLE NAME box. 5. Type “Recode Income” in OUTPUT VARIABLE LABEL box. 6. Click OLD AND NEW VAULES box. 7. Under OLD VALUES on the left click RANGE. Type 1 and 2 in the range boxes. Under NEW VALUES on the right click VALUE and type 1 in the value box. Click ADD.
© 2007 Prentice Hall 14-34 Recoding Income 8. Under OLD VALUES on the left click VALUE. Type 3 in the value box. Under NEW VALUES on the right click VALUE and type 2 in the value box. Click ADD. 9. Under OLD VALUES on the left click VALUE. Type 4 in the value box. Under NEW VALUES on the right click VALUE and type 3 in the value box. Click ADD. 10. Under OLD VALUES on the left click RANGE. Type 5 and 6 in the range boxes. Under NEW VALUES on the right click VALUE and type 4 in the value box. Click ADD. 11. Click CONTINUE. 12. Click CHANGE. 13. Click OK.
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