# Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman Data Analysis Lecture 6: SPSS.

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Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman Data Analysis Lecture 6: SPSS

Courtesy: Kevin Schoepp (Zayed University) Kentaka Aruga University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 2

Oultine Revisiting some Basic Terminologies Introduction to SPSS University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 3

Types of Statistics Descriptive: Summarize or describe our observations Inferential: Use observations to allow us to make predictions (inferences) about a situation that has not yet occurred Inferential stats generalize from a sample to the wider population University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 4

Population vs Sample A population refers to all the cases to which a researcher wants his estimates to apply to A sample is used because it is normally impossible to study all the members of a population University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 5

Variables Samples are made up of individuals, all individuals have characteristics. Members of a sample will differ on certain characteristics. Hence, we call this variation amongst individuals variable characteristics or variables for short. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 6

Level of Measurement Scale: A variable when its values are represented with a meaningful metric so that distance comparisons between values are appropriate. Examples: Age in years, Income in thousands of Rupees. Nominal: A variable when its values are represented with no ranking. Example: Region, zip code, or Political party affiliation. Ordinal: A variable when its values are represented with some ranking. Example, levels of service satisfaction from highly dissatisfied to highly satisfied. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 7

Introduction: What is SPSS? Originally it is an acronym of Statistical Package for the Social Science but now it stands for Statistical Product and Service Solutions One of the most popular statistical packages which can perform highly complex data manipulation and analysis with simple instructions University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 8

Data Editor Spreadsheet-like system for defining, entering, editing, and displaying data. Extension of the saved file will be sav. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 9

Output Viewer Displays output and errors. Extension of the saved file will be spv. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 10

The basics of managing data files University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 11

Opening SPSS The default window will have the data editor There are two sheets in the window: 1. Data view2. Variable view University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 12

Data View window The Data View window This sheet is visible when you first open the Data Editor and this sheet contains the data Click on the tab labeled Variable View Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 13

Variable View window This sheet contains information about the data set that is stored with the dataset Name The first character of the variable name must be alphabetic Variable names must be unique, and have to be less than 64 characters. Spaces are NOT allowed. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 14

Variable View window: Type Type Click on the type box. The two basic types of variables that you will use are numeric and string. This column enables you to specify the type of variable. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 15

Variable View window: Width Width Width allows you to determine the number of characters SPSS will allow to be entered for the variable University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 16

Variable View window: Decimals Decimals Number of decimals It has to be less than or equal to 16 University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 17

Variable View window: Label Label You can specify the details of the variable You can write characters with spaces up to 256 characters University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 18

Variable View window: Values Values This is used and to suggest which numbers represent which categories when the variable represents a category University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 19

Defining the value labels Click the cell in the values column as shown below For the value, and the label, you can put up to 60 characters. After defining the values click add and then click OK. Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 20

Practice 1 How would you put the following information into SPSS? Value = 1 represents Male and Value = 2 represents Female University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 21

Practice 1 (Solution Sample) Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 22

Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 23

Saving the data To save the data file you created simply click file and click save as. You can save the file in different forms by clicking Save as type. Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 24

Sorting the data Click Data and then click Sort Cases University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 25

Sorting the data (contd) Double Click Name of the students. Then click ok. Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 26

Practice 2 How would you sort the data by the Height of students in descending order? Answer Click data, sort cases, double click height of students, click descending, and finally click ok. University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 27

Transforming data Click Transform and then click Compute Variable… University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 28

Transforming data (contd) Example: Adding a new variable named lnheight which is the natural log of height Type in lnheight in the Target Variable box. Then type in ln(height) in the Numeric Expression box. Click OK Click University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 29

Transforming data (contd) A new variable lnheight is added to the table University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 30

Practice 3 Create a new variable named sqrtheight which is the square root of height. Answer University Of Malakand | Department of Computer Science | UoMIPS | Dr. Engr. Sami ur Rahman | 31